chapter 6 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 6 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 6

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 55

Chapter 6 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 138 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 6. Process Selection and Facility Layout. Introduction. Process selection Deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized Major implications Capacity planning Layout of facilities Equipment Design of work systems. Facilities and Equipment.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 6' - takara


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 6

Chapter 6

Process Selection and

Facility Layout

introduction
Introduction
  • Process selection
    • Deciding on the way production of goods or services will be organized
  • Major implications
    • Capacity planning
    • Layout of facilities
    • Equipment
    • Design of work systems
process selection and system design

Facilities andEquipment

CapacityPlanning

Forecasting

Layout

Product andService Design

ProcessSelection

WorkDesign

TechnologicalChange

Process Selection and System Design
process selection
Process Selection
  • Variety
    • How much
  • Flexibility
    • What degree
  • Volume
    • Expected output

Batch

Job Shop

Repetitive

Continuous

types of operations
Types of Operations

Project/

Job Shop

Unit or Batch

Mass/

Assembly

Continuous

INCREASED VOLUME

process design
Process Design
  • Project Processes (Fixed Position)
  • Intermittent Flow Processes (Batch Shops)
  • Continuous Flow Processes (Flow Shops)
  • Processing Industries (Continuous)
job shop fixed position
Job Shop (Fixed Position)
  • People and material move
  • Have limited duration
  • Small scale
  • Examples
    • Housing
    • Ship building
    • Dam
    • Appliance Repair
intermittent flow processes batch shops
Intermittent Flow Processes (Batch Shops)
  • No pattern exists between process of different products
  • Appropriate to service organizations
  • Moderate volume
  • Example:
    • Machine Shops
    • Auto Repair Shops
    • Commercial Bakery
    • Classroom Lecture
continuous flow processes flow shops
Continuous Flow Processes (Flow Shops)
  • Sequences are the same (Standard Routes)
  • High volumes of standardized goods or services
  • Examples:
    • Assembly Lines
    • Car Wash
processing industries continuous flow
Processing Industries (Continuous Flow)
  • One primary input (gas, wheat, etc) is converted to multiple outputs
  • Very high volumes of non-discrete goods
  • Example:
    • Petroleum
    • Chemicals
    • Food Industries
automation
Automation
  • Automation: Machinery that has sensing and control devices that enables it to operate
    • Fixed automation
    • Programmable automation
automation17
Automation
  • Computer-aided design and manufacturing systems (CAD/CAM)
  • Numerically controlled (NC) machines
  • Robot
  • Manufacturing cell
  • Flexible manufacturing systems(FMS)
  • Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
functional areas being linked to manage the flow of information
Functional Areas Being Linked to Manage the Flow of Information
  • Design
  • Handling of Materials
  • Storage and Retrieval of Information
  • Control of Machine Tools
design
Design
  • CAD
      • No longer limited to the top, side and front views
      • Can observe the rotation of the part about any axis on the screen
      • Generally, improves productivity in the drafting room by a factor of 3 or more
      • At GM, the redesign of a single auto model requires 14 months instead of 24 months
      • The time needed to design custom values reduced from six months to one
handling of materials
Handling of Materials
  • Data processing technology can be applied to the control of 3 general kids of machines in the factory:
    • Machines that store, retrieve, or transport materials
    • Machines that process the materials
    • Robots
handling of materials22
Handling of Materials
  • Automatic storage and retrieval systems transfer pallets of material into or out of storage rack up to 100 feet high
    • Mini Loaders
      • Hold drawers of small parts
    • Automatic Warehouse
      • Automatic shuttle takes the place of the fork-lift truck and its human operations
storage and retrieval of information
Storage and Retrieval of Information
  • GT
    • The formation of part families based on design or manufacturing similarities (or both)
    • Classification of parts speed up the design of similar parts in the company
    • Only 20% of the parts actually need new design. 40% could be built from an existing design and the other 40% could be created by modifying an existing design.
    • Automatic guided vehicle
control of machine tools
Control of Machine Tools
  • NC
    • Machine tools run by programs
  • DNC
    • Direct numerically controlled machine tools
    • Several computerized, NC machine tools are linked by a hierarchy of computers
control of machine tools25
Control of Machine Tools
  • FMS
  • Flexible Manufacturing System
  • It consists of an integrated collection of:
    • Automated Production Processes
      • NC
      • Robots
    • A material transport system
      • An automated transfer line
      • Robots
control of robots
Control of Robots
  • Robots
    • A programmable machine capable of moving materials and performing repetitive tasks.
  • Main features:
    • They are flexible
    • They eliminate the need for operators
  • Applications
    • Loading and unloading of machine tools
    • Jobs that are dirty, hazardous, unpleasant, or monotonous
the operating capabilities of the factory of the future
The Operating Capabilities of the Factory of the Future
  • Economic order quantity approaches 1
  • Variety has no cost penalty (economy of slope)
  • Rapid response to changes in product design, market demand, and production mix
  • Unmanned and continuous operation is standard
  • Consistent high levels of quality and accuracy and repeatability introduce higher levels of certainty into the production planning and control activity
facilities layout
Facilities Layout
  • Layout: the configuration of departments, work centers, and equipment, with particular emphasis on movement of work (customers or materials) through the system
importance of layout decisions
Importance of Layout Decisions
  • Requires substantial investments of money and effort
  • Involves long-term commitments
  • Has significant impact on cost and efficiency of short-term operations
basic layout types
Basic Layout Types
  • Product layout
    • Layout that uses standardized processing operations to achieve smooth, rapid, high-volume flow
  • Process layout
    • Layout that can handle varied processing requirements
  • Fixed Position layout
    • Layout in which the product or project remains stationary, and workers, materials, and equipment are moved as needed
product layout
Product Layout

Raw materials

or customer

Station

2

Station

3

Station

4

Finished item

Station

1

Material

and/or labor

Material

and/or labor

Material

and/or labor

Material

and/or labor

Used for Repetitive or Continuous Processing

advantages of product layout
Advantages of Product Layout
  • High rate of output
  • Low unit cost
  • Labor specialization
  • Low material handling cost
  • High utilization of labor and equipment
  • Established routing and scheduling
  • Routing accounting and purchasing
disadvantages of product layout
Disadvantages of Product Layout
  • Creates dull, repetitive jobs
  • Poorly skilled workers may not maintain equipment or quality of output
  • Fairly inflexible to changes in volume
  • Highly susceptible to shutdowns
  • Needs preventive maintenance
  • Individual incentive plans are impractical
assembly line balancing
Assembly Line Balancing
  • Cycle time
    • The time required to produce one part is called the cycle time, or the maximum time allowed at any one work station
  • Assembly Line Balancing
    • Given a cycle time, find the minimum number of work stations or minimize the cycle time for a given number of work stations
assembly line balancing40
Assembly Line Balancing

CYCLE TIME

.30 £ C £ 1.40

C = productive time/output rate

C = (8hr x 60min)=.5 min

960

Number of work stations, N = total time/C

N = 140 = 2.8 =3

.5

solution to assembly line balancing problem
Solution to Assembly Line Balancing Problem

Station Tasks Assigned Total Task Time Idle Time

1 A, B 0.5 0

2 C, D 0.45 0.05

3 E, F 0.45 0.05

TOTAL 1.4 0.1

line balancing rules
Line Balancing Rules

Some Heuristic (intuitive) Rules:

  • Assign tasks in order of most following tasks.
    • Count the number of tasks that follow
  • Assign tasks in order of greatest positional weight.
    • Positional weight is the sum of each task’s time and the times of all following tasks.
assembly line balancing solution
Assembly Line Balancing Solution
  • Line Efficiency = Total Work Content

C x N

  • Efficiency = 1.40 = .93 or 93%

.5 x 3

  • Balance Delay = 1 – efficiency = 1-.93 = 7%
example 2

c

d

a

b

e

f

g

h

Example 2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.8

0.6

1.0

0.4

0.3

solution to example 2

Station 1

Station 2

Station 3

Station 4

a

b

e

g

h

f

c

d

Solution to Example 2
a u shaped production line

1

2

3

4

In

5

Workers

6

Out

10

9

8

7

A U-Shaped Production Line
process layout functional
Process Layout (functional)
  • Assume we have the following departments:
    • Accounting (A)
    • Production Planning (P)
    • Customer Service (C)
    • Sales (S)
  • What arrangement would be better?
intermittent process
Intermittent Process
  • Criteria
    • Desirability ranking
    • Volume of interaction
    • Cost of interaction
      • Distance
      • Time
    • Safety
    • Facility Limitations
advantages of process layouts
Advantages of Process Layouts
  • Can handle a variety of processing requirements
  • Not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures
  • Equipment used is less costly
  • Possible to use individual incentive plans
disadvantages of process layouts
Disadvantages of Process Layouts
  • In-process inventory costs can be high
  • Challenging routing and scheduling
  • Equipment utilization rates are low
  • Material handling slow and inefficient
  • Complexities often reduce span of supervision
  • Special attention for each product or customer
  • Accounting and purchasing are more involved
cellular layouts
Cellular Layouts
  • Cellular Production
    • Layout in which machines are grouped into a cell that can process items that have similar processing requirements
  • Group Technology
    • The grouping into part families of items with similar design or manufacturing characteristics
process layout example

Milling

Assembly& Test

Grinding

Plating

Drilling

Process Layout - work travels to dedicated process centers

Process Layout - Example
functional layout

222

222

222

111

444

Mill

3333

22222

444

Grind

1111

2222

Assembly

333333333

44444

111

333

333333

Drill

111

111

Gear

cutting

111

333

444

Lathes

Heat

treat

Functional Layout
cellular manufacturing layout group technology

Gear

cut

Heat

treat

Lathe

Mill

Drill

-1111

-1111

Heat

treat

Mill

Drill

Grind

222222222

- 2222

Assembly

Heat

treat

- 3333

3333333333

Lathe

Mill

Grind

Gear

cut

- 4444

44444444444444

Mill

Drill

Cellular Manufacturing Layout – Group Technology