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Final Exam Review, pt. 5

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  1. Final Exam Review, pt. 5 Chapters 9 & 10

  2. Abnormal Behavior * A psychological disorder, causing distress, disability, or dysfunction. Defined symptomatically by the DSM.

  3. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV-TR) • Common language and standard criteria for classifying mental disorders • Organization – 5 dimensions (or axes) relating to different aspects of disorder or disability. • By American Psychiatric Association

  4. Anxiety Disorders • Anxiety – irrational fear, dread, or agitation; physiological arousal • 1. Phobias: unreasonable fear; avoidance • a. Specific phobia – clearly defined object or situation, e.g. dogs • b. Social phobia – extreme shyness or discomfort in social situations • 2. Panic Disorder * • Sudden attacks of apprehension & terror leading to behavioral changes & physical symptoms (Shortness of Breath, Rapid Pulse, trembling, sweating, fear)

  5. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder • a. Obsessions * • Repetitive, distressing or frightening thoughts • b. Compulsions * • Repetitive behaviors (an attempt to calm the thoughts)


  6. Dissociative Identity Disorder • 2 or more distinct personalities in the same person • Memory disruption regarding the “alter” • Rare • NOT the same as Schizophrenia • Used to be called multiple personality

  7. Schizophrenia • Psychosis: loss of contact with reality • Positive symptoms – hallucinations, delusions, inappropriate affect or behavior, loose associations, disorganized speech • Negative symptoms – social withdrawal, deterioration of adaptive behavior, flat affect, poor problem solving abilities

  8. Possible Causes of Schizophrenia * • Genetic • Brain– loss of neurons; enlarged ventricles • Neurotransmitters – e.g. excess dopamine • Poverty, malnutrition, disease • Prenatal damage – e.g. viruses • Stress • Substance Abuse may trigger • Interactions between items above

  9. Types of Schizophrenia * • Disorganized * • Language and/or behavior chaotic, illogical • Catatonic * • Extreme disorder of movement or no movement, no speech, may be stiff or rigid • Paranoid * • Hallucinations or delusions most prominent symptom; thoughts of persecution/grandeur • Undifferentiated * • Mixed; symptoms from 2-3 other types

  10. Major depressive disorder * • Low mood (despair) - withdrawal, loss of interest & pleasure; eating & sleeping disturbance, lack of energy, guilt • More than 2 weeks • Impaired functioning • May have psychotic features • Suicidal thoughts or attempts

  11. Bipolar Disorder • Alternates between lows (depression) & highs (mania); may be normal in between • Mania * • Exceptional energy, enthusiasm, agitation, irritable, may be out of control (sex, drugs, gambling, spending)

  12. Risk Factors for Suicide * • Risk if have a Diagnosable psychiatric disorder • More females attempt suicide. • More males succeed • Older men highest risk • History of being abused • High risk behavior • Method (guns succeed more than pills) • Risk - Prior attempts, family history, exposure

  13. Personality Disorders * • Inflexible patterns of thinking, feeling or relating to others • These patterns cause problems in personal, social & work situations. • Inability to understand needs of others • Three “clusters” • A) Odd, eccentric • B) Dramatic/erratic • C) Anxious/inhibited

  14. Antisocial Personality Disorder * • Pervasive pattern of violating the rights of others • Lie, cheat, steal, criminal behavior • Alcohol, drug abuse • Egocentric, impulsive • Biological and environmental factors • 3x more males

  15. Somatoform Disorders * • Real physical symptoms • Not explained by medical condition. • Stress-related • More females • Hypochondriasis = excessive worry about having a physical illness

  16. Approaches to Therapy * Chapter 10 Therapy – Helping a person to change

  17. Psychoanalysis • The “talking cure” • Freud’s techniques include: • Free association • Dream analysis • Transference • Insight and interpretation • Uncover unconscious conflicts

  18. Client (Person) Centered Therapy * • Focus on Personal Growth • Therapist is accepting, supportive and nondirective • Carl Roger’s Techniques include: • Develop therapeutic alliance: • 1) Therapist is genuine • 2) Unconditional Positive Regard – Therapist is Non Judgmental • 3) Empathy with client

  19. Behavior Therapy* • Based on principles of learning • Focus on present, specific change desired • Baseline measured; goals established. • Use of associations, reinforcements, punishment, cues, shaping, etc. • Specific goals

  20. Cognitive Therapy • Clients identify distorted or incorrect beliefs that are causing problems • Learn to think in a new, more logical ways, e.g. “I can survive” v. “I can’t live without him.” • Reframe situations, e.g. “challenges” instead of disasters • Homework • New patterns of thinking that can be used in future situations.

  21. Biological Therapies * • Drugs (anti-anxiety, anti-depressants, anti-psychotics, stimulants, mood stabilizers) • Often combined with talk therapies • If non-response to talk and drugs, may use: • ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) for depression • Psychosurgery for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder