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Final Exam Review

Final Exam Review

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Final Exam Review

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  1. Final Exam Review : )

  2. Chapter 9 Lesson 1 What is a plant?

  3. What characteristics are common to all plants? • Cell Structure • Eukaroytic cells (membrane-bound organelles) • Cell wall • Chloroplast • Central vacuole • Multicellular • Producers

  4. What adaptations have enabled plant species to survive Earth’s changing environments? • Protection • Cuticle • Slows down evaporation • Protection from insects • Support • Cell wall made of cellulose • Transporting Materials • Vascular tissue • Reproduction • Water-resistant seeds or spores • Movement of seeds or spores (water, wind, animals, etc.)

  5. Chapter 9 Lesson 2 Seedless Plants

  6. How are nonvascular and vascular seedless plants alike, and how are they different? • Nonvascular Seedless Plants • Bryophytes • Small • Lack vascular tissue • No flowers • Live in moist environments • Materials move through osmosis and diffusion

  7. Nonvascular Plants continued • Do not have roots, stems or leaves • Have rhizoids (unicellular or multicellular) • Photosynthetic tissue is one layer thick – lacks cuticle • Reproduction by spores, requires water • Examples: mosses, liverworts, hornworts

  8. Vascular Seedless Plants • 90% of plants • Contain vascular tissue • Smaller than ancestors • Have roots, stems, and leaves • Reproduce with spores • Exampls: ferns, club mosses, horsetails

  9. Chapter 9 Lesson 3 Seed Plants

  10. What characteristics are common to seed plants? • Seed: tiny plant embryo and nutrition for developing plant • 300,000 species of seed plants • Two groups • Gymnosperms – cone-bearing plants • Angiosperms – flowering plants

  11. Vascular Tissue • Two types: xylem and phloem • Xylem • Carries water and dissolved nutrients from the roots to the stems and leaves • Supports plant • Phloem • Carries dissolved sugars throughout a plant

  12. Roots • Anchor • Help plant stay upright • Absorb water and minerals • Some plants store food in roots (carrots, radishes, maple trees)

  13. Stems • Connects roots to leaves • Can be above ground or under ground • Supports branches and leaves • Xylem • Phloem • Classified as herbaceous (soft and green) or woody (stiff, not green)

  14. Leaves • Major site of photosynthesis • Made up of layers of cells • Cuticle • Epidermis • Stomata (singular is stoma) • Open and close – controlled by guard cells • Allows carbon dioxide, oxygen, and water vapor to pass through

  15. Leaves continued • Angiosperm – flat and broad • Gymnosperm – needlelike or scalelike, thick cuticle

  16. How are gymnosperms and angiosperms alike, and how are they different? • Gymnosperms • Oldest plants • Grow all over, except in Antarctica • Seeds in cones • Conifers – spruce, pine tree, redwoods • Building materials, paper, medicines, ornamental plants

  17. Angiosperms • 260,000 species • Grow in a variety of habitats • Grains, vegetables, herbs, spices, fruits • Clothing, medicines, building materials, food • Flowers • Seeds are a part of fruit • Flowers may not be noticeable

  18. What adaptations of flowering plants enable them to survive in diverse environments? • Annuals • One growing season • Biennials • Two growing seasons • Perennials • More than two growing seasons

  19. Adaptations continued • Monocots • one seed leaf – cotyledon • Vascular tissue is scattered • Flowers in multiples of 3 • Narrow leaves with parallel veins • Dicots • Two cotyledons (seed leaves) • Vascular tissue in rings • Flowers in multiples of 4 or 5 • Leaves veins are branched