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Finding Locations on Earth. Earth and Space Science Ms. Pollock 2008-2009. Finding Locations on Earth. Earth nearly a perfect sphere Axis of rotation used for reference points Reference points geographic North and South Poles and the equator Hemispheres created. Latitude.

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finding locations on earth

Finding Locations on Earth

Earth and Space Science

Ms. Pollock

2008-2009

finding locations on earth1
Finding Locations on Earth
  • Earth nearly a perfect sphere
  • Axis of rotation used for reference points
  • Reference points geographic North and South Poles and the equator
  • Hemispheres created
latitude
Latitude
  • Positions north and south of equator
  • Parallels – circles running east and west parallel to the equator
  • Latitude – angular distance north or south of the equator
  • Measured in degrees
  • Equator 0 latitude
  • Poles 90 latitude
latitude1
Latitude
  • 1 latitude = 111 km
  • Parallels north of equator labeled N, parallels south of equator labeled S
  • Each degree divided into 60 minutes (1.85 km)
  • Each minute divided into 60 seconds
longitude
Longitude
  • How far east or west along a parallel
  • Meridian – a semicircle that runs from pole to pole
  • Prime meridian selected by international agreement to pass through Greenwich, England
  • Longitude – angular distance east or west of the prime meridian
longitude1
Longitude
  • All locations east of prime meridian 0 to 180 E
  • All locations west of prime meridian 0 to 180 W
  • Distance between meridians varies because meridians end at poles
great circles
Great Circles
  • Any circle that divides the globe into halves
  • Meridians directly across globe from each other
  • Equator only line of latitude that is a great circle
  • Shortest distance between two points on the globe
finding direction
Finding Direction
  • Magnetic compass
    • Uses Earth’s magnetic properties
    • Compass needle points toward geomagnetic north pole
    • Geomagnetic poles different from geographic poles
magnetic declination
Magnetic Declination
  • Angle between geomagnetic north pole and geographic north pole
  • Measured east and west of poles
the global positioning system
The Global Positioning System
  • Global network of 24 satellites that transmit radio waves to Earth
  • First NAVSTAR, 1978
  • GPS receiver signaled by three satellites calculating latitude, longitude, and altitude
  • Personal receivers accurate to within 10-15 m of location
  • Commercial receivers accurate to within cm