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  1. ECOSYSTEMS AND COMMMUNITIES

  2. THE ROLE OF CLIMATE OBJECTIVE: 4.1 Identify the cause of climate. Explain how Earth’s temperature range is maintained. Identify Earth’s three main climate zones.

  3. ________ is the day-to-day condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.

  4. ______ refers to the average, year after year conditions of temp and precipitation in a particular region.

  5. Carbon dioxide, ______, water vapor, and a few other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range. The natural situation in which heat is retained by this layer of greenhouse gases is called the ________ effect.

  6. The _____ zones are areas where the sun’s rays strike Earth at a very low angle. The zones are located in the areas around the North and South poles, between ____ and __ degrees N and S

  7. The ________ zones sit between the polar zones and the tropics. Temperate zones are more affected by the changing angle of the sun over the course of a year, the climate ranges from hot to cold, depending on the season.

  8. The _______ zone, or tropics, is near the equator, between 23.5 degrees north and south lat. The tropics receive direct sunlight year-around, making the climate almost always warm.

  9. The uneven ________ of Earth’s surface drives winds and ocean currents, which transports heat throughout the biosphere. Local topography effects temp and precip.

  10. WHAT SHAPES AN ECOSYSTEM OBJECTIVES: 4.2 Explain how biotic and abiotic factors influence an ecosystem. Identify the interactions that occur within communities. Describe how ecosystems recover from a disturbance.

  11. _____ factors are the living things in an ecosystem.

  12. ______ factors are the physical or nonliving factors in an ecosystem. Ex. Temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, nutrient, soil type, and sunlight. A ______ includes both biotic and abiotic factors (occupation, job). A _____ is the full range of physical and biological conditions in which and organism lives ( its address).

  13. Community interactions, such as _________, predation, and various forms of _______ can powerfully affect an ecosystem. A _______ is any necessity of life, such as water, light, food, etc. Species compete for these resources. Competitive _______ principle states that no two species can occupy the same niche and habitat at the same time.

  14. _______ is an interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism. ________ is any relationship in which two species live closely together.

  15. In _______ both species benefit form the relationship.

  16. In __________, one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.

  17. In parasitism one organism lives on or inside another organism (host).

  18. ________ are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances. As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community. Ecological ________ is the series of predictable changes that occurs in a community over time.

  19. On land, succession that occurs on surfaces where no soil exists is called _______ succession. The first species (lichens) to populate the area are called _______ species.

  20. ______ succession occurs in area of natural disturbances where soil is left.

  21. BIOMES OBJECTIVES: 4.3 Explain what microclimates are. Identify the characteristics of major land biomes.

  22. A ______ is a complex of terrestrial communities that cover a large area and is characterized by certain soils and climate conditions and particular assemblages of plants and animals. Animals are adapted to live in certain conditions. These variations that allows species to survive under different conditions and biomes is called t________.

  23. Major biomes Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Temperate grassland Desert Temperate woodland and shrub land Temperate forest – we live in one, has a mixture of deciduous (sheds leaves once a year) and conifers (evergreen, has cones) trees. Northern coniferous forest Boreal forest (taiga) Tundra Mountains and ice capes Read and know about biomes from page 100 – 105.

  24. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS OBJECTIVE: 4.4 Identify the factors that govern aquatic ecosystems. Identify the two types of freshwater ecosystems. Describe the characteristics of the marine zones

  25. _______ ecosystems are determined primarily by the depth, flow, temp, and chemistry of the overlying water. _______ ecosystems can be divided into two main types: _______-water ecosystems and _______-water ecosystems.

  26. ______, streams, creeks, and _____ are all freshwater ecosystems that flow over the land. Organism are well adapted to living to the water’s ____ of flow.

  27. _____and ponds are the most common standing-water ecosystem. These ecosystems have ________ and __________.

  28. A _______ is an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year. Three types – bogs, _______, and swamps

  29. _______ are wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea. _______ is made up of tiny pieces of organic material that provide food for organisms (clams, worms, etc) at the base of the estuary’s food chain. They also serve as spawning grounds for commercially important fishes, ______, and crabs.

  30. Salt marsh Mangrove swamp

  31. Marine ecosystem • ______ zone – the upper layer were photosynthesis can take place (~200m). • ________ zone – permanently dark, has only chemosynthetic producers. • Oceans are divided into the _______ zone, the coastal ocean, and the ____ ocean.

  32. The _______ zone is the area that is exposed to regular and extreme changes in their surroundings. Once or twice a day they are submerged in sea water. ________ is the prominent horizontal banding of organisms that live in a particular habitat.

  33. The _______ ocean extends from the low tide mark to the outer edge of the continental shelf. One of the most productive coastal ocean communities is the _____ forest.

  34. _____ _____ are found in warm, shallow water of tropical coastal oceans. They are the most productive environments on earth. Most reefs are found within ____ of the surface