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ECOLOGY AND ECOSYSTEMS. ECOLOGY. IS THE STUDY OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS. ECOSYSTEM. A LIMITED AREA IN WHICH LIVING AND NONLIVING THINGS INTERACT HAS 2 PARTS: ABIOTIC FACTORS (NONLIVING) BIOTIC FACTORS (LIVING).

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ecology
ECOLOGY

IS THE STUDY OF THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANISMS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS

ecosystem
ECOSYSTEM
  • A LIMITED AREA IN WHICH LIVING AND NONLIVING THINGS INTERACT
  • HAS 2 PARTS:
    • ABIOTIC FACTORS (NONLIVING)
    • BIOTIC FACTORS (LIVING)
slide4
HOW MANY ABIOTIC (NONLIVING) COMPONENTS CAN YOU FIND IN THE FOLLOWING ECOSYSTEM?

MAKE A LIST ON YOUR PAPER.

abiotic factors
ABIOTIC FACTORS
  • LIGHT
  • TEMPERATURE
  • WATER/MOISTURE
  • SOIL
  • WIND OR CURRENT

(HOW MANY OF THESE DID YOU PICK OUT OF THE PICTURE?)

biotic factors
BIOTIC FACTORS

THE BIOTIC FACTORS INCLUDE ALL OF THE LIVING ORGANISMS IN THE ECOSYSTEM

ALL OF THE MEMBERS OF ONE

KIND OF ORGANISM IN THE

ECOSYSTEM MAKE UP A

POPULATION

slide8

HOW MANY ABIOTIC (NONLIVING) COMPONENTS CAN YOU FIND IN THE FOLLOWING ECOSYSTEM?

MAKE A LIST ON YOUR PAPER.

slide10
THE PRODUCERS MANUFACTURE THEIR OWN FOOD USING A PROCESS CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS. SOME EXAMPLES OF PRODUCER ORGANISMS ARE GREEN PLANTS AND ALGAE.
  • THE CONSUMERS CANNOT MANUFACTURE THEIR OWN FOOD, AND MUST OBTAIN THEIR ENERGY FROM OTHER SOURCES.
types of consumers
TYPES OF CONSUMERS
  • HERBIVORES ARE CONSUMERS THAT EAT PLANT MATERIAL
  • CARNIVORES ARE CONSUMERS THAT EAT ANIMALS (MEAT EATERS)
  • OMNIVORES ARE CONSUMERS THAT EAT BOTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS
relationships between organisms
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ORGANISMS
  • PREDATOR-PREY: A PREDATOR IS AN ANIMAL THAT FEEDS ON OTHER ANIMALS. THE PREY IS THE ANIMAL THAT THE PREDATOR EATS. THESE RELATIONSHIPS ARE IMPORTANT BECAUSE THEY KEEP THE POPULATIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM BALANCED. AN EXAMPLE IS THE LION AND THE ZEBRA. OTHERS:
slide14
2. PARASITE-HOST: A PARASITE, WHICH IS USUALLY SMALLER THAN ITS HOST, OBTAINS ITS MATERIALS AND NUTRIENTS FROM A LARGER ORGANISM CALLED THE HOST. SOME PARASITES ARE VERY SPECIFIC AND WILL ONLY LIVE WITH ONE SPECIES OF ORGANISM. EXAMPLES ARE FLEAS ON A DOG AND FEATHER LICE ON BIRDS.
slide15
3. COMPETITION: THIS MAY OCCUR BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE SAME POPULATION OR BETWEEN DIFFERENT POPULATIONS. IT HAPPENS BECAUSE THE ORGANISMS HAVE THE SAME BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR SPACE, FOOD, OR MATES. THESE ITEMS THAT CAUSE COMPETITION WHEN THEY ARE IN SHORT SUPPLY IN AN ECOSYSTEM ARE CALLED LIMITING FACTORS.
slide17
4. COMMENSALISM: A RELATONSHIP BETWEEN 2 POPULATIONS THATBENEFITS ONE AND DOES NOT HELP OR HURT THE OTHER. A EXAMPLE IS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A LEOPARD AND CARRION FEEDERS. IF THE LEOPARD KILLS AN ANTELOPE AND EATS ALL IT WANTS, SOON VULTURES, HYENAS AND JACKALS WILL COME TO “CLEAN UP” THE LEFTOVERS.
slide18
5. MUTUALISM:A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TWO POPULATIONS THAT IS BENEFICIAL TO BOTH. FOR EXAMPLE, AS A HONEYBEE GATHERS NECTAR AND POLLEN FROM A RED CLOVER FLOWER, THE FLOWER IS POLLINATED BY THE BEE. SINCE BOTH THE BEE AND THE FLOWER BENEFIT, THE RELATIONSHIP IS MUTUALISTIC.
slide19
MANY MUTUALISMS ARE OBLIGATORY, WHERE BOTH ORGANISMS MUST LIVE TOGETHER OR THEY WILL DIE. TERMITES, FOR EXAMPLE, HAVE A TYPE OF MICROORGANISM IN THEIR INTESTINES WHICH HELP DIGEST WOOD. WITHOUT THE PROTOZOANS, THE TERMITES WOULD DIE OF STARVATION-NO MATTER HOW MUCH WOOD THEY EAT! WHAT DO THE MICROORGANISMS GET?
lab activity
LAB ACTIVITY

SIMULATION OF PREDATOR-PREY INTERACTIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM

food chains
FOOD CHAINS
  • ARE MODELS THAT SHOW HOW MATTER AND ENERGY MOVE THROUGH AN ECOSYSTEM
  • NUTRIENTS FLOW FROM AUTOTROPHS TO HETEROTROPHS, AND FINALLY TO DECOMPOSERS
  • EACH ORGANISM IN THE FOOD CHAIN REPRESENTS A TROPHIC LEVEL
food webs ecological pyramids
FOOD WEBS & ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
  • FOOD WEBS REPRESENT ALL THE POSSIBLE FEEDING RELATIONSHIPS AT EACH TROPHIC LEVEL IN A COMMUNITY
  • ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS ARE MODELS THAT SHOW THE ENERGY CONVERSIONS IN AN ECOSYSTEM
matter cycles
MATTER CYCLES
  • MATTER IN AN ECOSYSTEM IS CONTINUOUSLY RECYCLED
  • THERE ARE FOUR PRIMARY MATTER CYCLES THAT WE WILL STUDY
      • WATER
      • CARBON
      • NITROGEN
succession
SUCCESSION
  • IS A PREDICTABLE SERIES OF CHANGES THAT OCCUR IN BIOTIC COMMUNITIES AS THEY PROGRESS TOWARD A CLIMAX COMMUNITY
  • WHEN A CLIMAX COMMUNITY IS DESTROYED (FIRE, WATER, MAN,…) IT WILL GO THROUGH THE SERIES OF CHANGES IN SUCCESSION
pioneer organisms
PIONEER ORGANISMS
  • ARE THE 1ST ORGANISMS TO MOVE INTO THE DESTROYED AREA
  • THESE ORGANISMS ARE SMALL
  • THERE ARE FEW POPULATIONS, BUT THE POPULATIONS ARE LARGE
  • THE ORGANISMS HAVE HIGH METABOLIC RATES AND SHORT LIFE SPANS
climax organisms
CLIMAX ORGANISMS
  • ARE THE ORGANISMS TO MOVE INTO THE AREA AFTER IT HAS BEEN SETTLED BY THE PIONEERS
  • THESE ORGANISMS ARE LARGE
  • THERE ARE MANY SMALLER POPULATIONS
  • THE ORGANISMS HAVE LOW METABOLIC RATES AND LONGER LIFE SPANS