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Chapter 6. Critical Approaches. Overview. Political frame of reference Unitary-common org. goals/conflict is rare Pluralist-org. consist of groups w/ diverse interests/conflict is inherent & positive Role of theorist from the Critical Approach

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Critical Approaches

  • Political frame of reference
    • Unitary-common org. goals/conflict is rare
    • Pluralist-org. consist of groups w/ diverse interests/conflict is inherent & positive
  • Role of theorist from the Critical Approach
    • Prescriptive-finding effective techniques for organizing
    • Descriptive-explaining relationships to understand
    • Sites of domination-raise awareness of people involved
roots of critical approach
Roots of Critical Approach
  • Karl Marx & Fredrick Ingles
    • Inherent imbalance of power
    • Leaders prone to abuse
    • Critique leads to revolution-should not be afraid of retaliation
  • Critical theory
    • Societal structures and imbalances lead to fundamental imbalances of power
    • Imbalance of power leads to alienation and oppression
    • Role of critical theorist is to uncover imbalances and bring to the attention of the oppressed
pervasiveness of power
Pervasiveness of power
  • Definition of power (what is power?)
  • What are sources of power in an org? (p. 103)
    • Traditional approach
      • Hierarchy, structure
    • Symbological approach
      • Views power as a product of communicative interactions and relationships
    • Radical-critical approach
      • Concerned with “deep structures” that produce and reproduce relationships in org. life
      • Contribute to hostile work environment-lead to exclusion
pervasiveness of power1
Pervasiveness of power
  • Control of modes of production
    • Economic conditions that underlie the production process
  • Control of means of production
    • Actual work process
  • Control of gender issues
    • Focus on patriarchy
    • Stereotypical female characteristics are devalued (emotion, empathy, intuition)
  • Control of org. discourse
    • The way we comm. can empower power
ideology and hegemony
Ideology and hegemony
  • Ideology
    • Taken for granted assumptions about reality that influence perceptions of situations and events
  • Hegemony
    • Process in which a dominant group leads another group to accept subordination as the norm
  • Liberation of people from unnecessarily restrictive traditions, assumptions, ideologies and power relations
  • Not everyone always wants to be liberated
  • Even in the most hegemonic culture, employees still have some ability to “resist” management control
  • Dialectic of control
    • “Relations of autonomy and dependence (power relations) are never fixed; that is, subordinates can always exercise some degree of control over the conditions of hegemonic reproduction” (awareness)
critical approaches theory
Critical Approaches Theory
  • Concertive Control Theory
    • Theory predicts that power relations (control) still exist with a team based environment
    • Concertive means mindful effort
    • Power is embedded in a system of identification, rules, & discipline
    • Workers self-regulate & identify with mang. values thinking it is there own decision!
critical approaches theory1
Critical Approaches Theory
  • Three components of Concertive Control
      • Control
      • Identification
      • Discipline (self monitoring)
critical approaches theory2
Critical Approaches Theory
  • Feminist theories
    • Org.’s are inherently patriarchal
    • Traditional vs. feminist characteristics “bounded rationality” (logic vs. emotion)
    • Different view points toward male domination
      • Liberal feminists
      • Radical feminists
      • Case in Point - “Using the F Word” (p. 113)
    • Sexual harassment
      • Framing devices & Policies still tend to oppress (Table 6-2/p. 115)
      • Hostile work environment-degree of exclusion
research methods
Research methods
  • Quantitative
    • Demonstrates how resources are distributed in organizations or how individuals perceive their lives within org’s
  • Interpretive
    • Similar to those used by cultural scholars
  • Deconstruction (Table 6.3-p. 117)
    • Involves “taking apart” a text in order to reveal social and political meanings
so what ponder these questions these might be good questions for the discussion board
So What? Ponder these questions! (These might be good questions for the discussion board )
  • What does this mean to you?
  • Are we taking things too seriously?
  • Do you feel like you have ever been marginalized, been put at a disadvantage, or missed an opportunity because of certain cultural characteristics?
  • What’s the role of communication?
  • How can we make change?