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Strategic Planning Techniques & Lessons Learned

Strategic Planning Techniques & Lessons Learned

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Strategic Planning Techniques & Lessons Learned

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  1. Strategic PlanningTechniques & Lessons Learned Steve Carter Innovation Lab Manager National Security Space Architect (703) 325-6401 stephen.p.carter@saic.com

  2. Overview • Strategic planning context and definitions • Developing a strategic plan • Mission and Vision Statements • Goals and Objectives • Recommended Techniques • Lessons Learned

  3. Why is strategic planning important? • The Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 requires federal agencies to develop strategic plans for how they will deliver high quality products and services to the American people. • “Business strategy is now the single most important management issue and will remain so for the next five years.” • Strategic Planning; Business Week; Aug 26, 1996

  4. What does strategic planning do? • Preparation and Submission of Strategic Plans, OMB Circular No. A-11: • A strategic plan can be used to align agency organization and budget structure with missions and objectives. In matching programs and activities to the agency mission and objectives, the strategic plan can also be a means for re-aligning and re-engineering functions and operations. • The Balanced Scorecard, Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton • Measurement matters: “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it.” An organization’s measurement system strongly affects the behavior of people both inside and outside the organization. • Business Plans for Dummies, Paul Tiffany and Steven D. Peterson • A business plan takes a good hard look at your company … so that you can honestly and objectively recognize its capabilities and resources, its strengths and weaknesses, and its true advantages.

  5. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. Best Practices in Customer-Driven Strategic Planning, Federal Benchmarking Consortium Study Report, February 1997. http://www.npr.gov/library/papers/benchmrk/customer.html

  6. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • continuous - must be an ongoing process, not merely an event to produce a plan;

  7. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • systematic - must be a structured and deliberate effort, not something that happens on its own;

  8. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • process - thinking about the future and how to get there, which is more important than a document (e.g., a strategic plan);

  9. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • guiding members - not only senior executives, but employees. (It also considers stakeholders and customers who affect the decisions being made.)

  10. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • procedures and operations to achieve that future - full spectrum of actions and activities: aligning behind long-term goals, putting in place organizational and personal incentives, allocating resources, and developing the workforce to achieve the desired outcomes;

  11. What is strategic planning? • The continuous and systematic process whereby guiding members of an organization make decisions about its future, develop the necessary procedures and operations to achieve that future, and determine how success is to be measured. • how success is to be measured - use measures to determine if the organization has achieved success.

  12. Strategic Plan Strategic Planning Process Workforce Development Resource Allocation

  13. Components of a Strategic Plan • Mission and Vision Statements • Goals and Objectives • Critical Success Factors and Barriers • Guiding Principles or Values • Strategies and Actions

  14. Vision Goals What we’re doing now What we want to be Mission Objectives Strategic Plan Overview Strategic Plan

  15. Developing a Strategic Plan • Begin with the senior leadership • Develop and agree upon draft components • Vet the drafts with the organization • Refine components as necessary • Look for organizational consensus vice unanimity • Be ready for many sessions & revisions

  16. National Security Space Architect (NSSA) • “We are a joint agency tasked to look at future government requirements in space. In collaboration with interested DoD, Intelligence, Civil, and Commercial participants, we conduct studies emphasizing the 2010 to 2025 time frame, for which we analyze future requirements and technologies to make investment recommendations to decision makers. We don't operate or procure systems/equipment ourselves, but rather make suggestions to the people who do as to the best paths or directions to follow now, so that future requirements will be met.” (Steve Carter, Mar 2000)

  17. Mission and Vision Definitions • Mission • A statement of the overall purpose of an organization. • Vision • A statement of where the organization is going.

  18. Components of a Mission Statement • What do you do? • For whom do you do it? • Why do you do it? • Answer the basic question: • What is your business? • NSSA Mission Statement • Forging the architecture for tomorrow’s integrated space capabilities to achieve national security objectives

  19. Mission Statement Exercise • Brainstorm high-level activities you do now • Categorize them into bins & label bins • Develop sample mission statements • Vote for 3 best statements • Combine best samples into draft mission statement • Vet result with organization • Survey for comfort-level with statement

  20. NSSAMission Statement Iterations • Mar 97 • The mission of the jointly manned Office of the Space Architect is to improve support to military operations by leading a coordinated DoD development of future architectures for all space mission areas. These architectures will effectively and efficiently meet joint warfighting needs, leverage technologies, and maximize synergy across the national space community through integration, resource sharing, and elimination of unnecessary duplication of effort. • Jun 97 • To consolidate the responsibilities for DoD space missions and systems architecture development into a single organization that shall integrate space architectures and systems, eliminate unnecessary stovepiping of programs, achieve efficiencies in acquisition and future operations through program integration, and thereby improve space support to military operations. • Aug 97 • Working together to develop space system architectures that effectively and efficiently support the nation’s warfighters. • Sep 97 • Create long range plans for DoD that revolutionize space capabilities to strengthen national security. • Oct 97 • Forge the integrated vision of tomorrow’s space capabilities to achieve national security objectives.

  21. NSSA Mission Statement Mission Forging the architecture for tomorrow’s integrated space capabilities to achieve national security objectives

  22. Components of a Vision Statement • Where does your organization intend to go? • What does it want to become? • NSSA Vision Statement • Leading a collaborative team - creating tomorrow’s unified national security space architecture

  23. Vision Statement Exercise • Brainstorm what you want to become • List attributes you want to have • Use future visioning exercise • Categorize into bins & label bins • Develop sample vision statements • Vote for 3 best statements • Combine best samples into draft vision statement • Vet result with organization • Survey for comfort-level with statement

  24. NSSAVision Statement Iterations • Mar 97 • As we accomplish our mission, the Space Architect will be: First to know the impact of changing warfighter needs and technology. First to recommend cost effective, integrated and enduring space capabilities to meet those needs. And first to be sought for advice on where DoD space should proceed. • Jun 97 • We are innovators of superior space capabilities that enable dominance in future warfare. • Aug 97 • We are innovators of superior space architectures that enable the US and its allies to operate efficiently through the full spectrum of conflict from peace and deterrence to operations other than war, and war with the assurance our forces will dominate. • Nov 97 • Organization of choice to provide visionary perspectives and comprehensive, impartial assessments of space community issues for achieving national security objectives. • Dec 97 • Proactive and innovative professionals leading the space community toward integrated national security space capabilities for the warfighter.

  25. Vision Statement Survey - Dec 97 • Proactive and innovative professionals leading the space community toward integrated national security space capabilities for the warfighter. 57% response rate (13/23)

  26. Vision Statement Survey - Nov 98 • A collaborative team -- a unified national architecture 44% response rate (24/54)

  27. NSSA Mission and Vision Statements Mission Forging the architecture for tomorrow’s integrated space capabilities to achieve national security objectives Vision Leading a collaborative team - creating tomorrow’s unified national security space architecture

  28. Strategic Planning Goals • Goals • Broad, long-term aims that define accomplishment of the mission.

  29. Stakeholders Organizations which implement space architectures or cannot function effectively without space architectures. Internal Management Critical internal processes and capa- bilities in which NSSA must excel in order to satisfy our stakeholder expectations and to attract/retain customers Customers Executive and Legislative Branch organizations involved in resource allocation and decision making. Innovation and Learning NSSA policies, procedures, and actions to create opportunities for long term growth and continuous improve- ment (individual and organizational) Balanced Scorecard Perspectives

  30. Goals Exercise • Brainstorm organizational goals • What is important for the organization to accomplish? • Categorize goals into Balanced Scorecard buckets/perspectives • Combine/refine goals within each bucket • Vet draft goals with organization

  31. NSSA Goals - 1997 • Coordinate implementation and integration of architectures into comprehensive "system of systems" • Develop/acquire a core in-house tool set of models and simulations that get at the problem of how space systems make a difference to the warfighter • Achieve efficiencies in development, acquisition, and future operations through program integration • Know current and emerging user needs and prioritize those needs • To remain the credible "honest broker" for senior decision makers to rely upon for guidance and input • Foster better understanding among participants on all issues surrounding space systems • Provide value added recommendations to existing program decision milestones to facilitate implementation of future architectures.

  32. NSSA Goals - 1998 • Stakeholders • Encourage (or solicit) broad participation from executive branch organizations and industry in a process that leads the stakeholders to take ownership of the architectural vectors • Customers • Timely products tailored to customer needs • Create and maintain an interactive, easily accessible (at multiple security levels) National Security Space Master Plan (NSSMP) to support decision making • Internal Management • Ensure all personnel have the opportunity to excel • Sustain open communications at all times with the national security community • Innovation and Learning • Expose study participants to new ways of doing business, new concepts for operations, and opportunities created by new technologies

  33. NSSA Goals - 1999 • Stakeholders • Obtain broad participation from executive branch organizations and industry in a process that leads the stakeholders to take ownership of the architectural vectors • Customers • Timely products tailored to customer needs • Create and maintain an interactive, easily accessible (at multiple security levels) National Security Space Master Plan (NSSMP) to support decision making • Internal Management • Ensure all personnel have the opportunity to excel • Sustain open communications at all times • Innovation and Learning • A learning organization exposing our teams to new ways of doing business, new concepts for operations, and opportunities created by new technologies

  34. NSSA Goals - 2000 Stakeholders • Facilitate broad participation from executive branch organizations and industry in a collaborative process that leads the stakeholders to take ownership of the architectures Customers • Deliver relevant, timely, and quality products responsive to customer needs • Establish the National Security Space Master Plan (NSSMP) as the source for a comprehensive picture of an integrated strategy from which policy and investment decisions will be made Internal Management • Ensure every individual understands their role in the organization and has the opportunity to achieve their full potential • Create and maintain a culture of trust, open communications, and shared responsibility Innovation and Learning • Enable individual and organizational continuous improvement by equipping our team to exploit emerging best practices, new concepts for operations, and opportunities created by new technologies

  35. Strategic Planning Objectives • Objectives • Specific, quantifiable, realistic targets that measure the accomplishment of a goal over a specified period of time. • SMART characteristics • S - specific • M - measurable • A - acceptable • R - realistic • T - timely

  36. Characteristics of a Good Objective • Specific • “Write a paper” vice “Work harder” • Measurable • “Write a 30-page paper” • Acceptable • Involve responsible person in developing objective • Realistic • “Write a 30-page paper in one month” • Timely • Spread the work out across the month Author: Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD. Source: Free Management Library @ http://www.mapnp.org/library

  37. Objectives Exercise • Brainstorm objectives by goals (or by BSC perspectives) • What is important for the organization to achieve? • (Relate objectives to goals within the BSC perspectives) • Combine/refine objectives under each goal • Review objectives for SMART characteristics • Vet draft objectives with organization

  38. AlternativeObjectives Exercise • Brainstorm organizational issues • What is important to the organization? • Org-wide vote to determine which issues are most important • Develop draft set of objectives to address issues • Apply objectives to goals & expand as necessary • Review objectives for SMART characteristics • Vet objectives with organization

  39. Involving the Organization’s Personnel • Senior leadership develops a list of draft objectives (50% solution). • Personnel in the organization surveyed to determine personal and organizational importance. • Senior leadership refines list of objectives (80-90% solution). • Divisions develop products/processes/services (PPS) in support of objectives • Senior leadership refines list of PPS • Responsible divisions finalize objective wording.

  40. NSSA Draft Objectives by Organizational Importance

  41. Strategic Goals 2000 Objectives Customer: Improve the ADT process to increase participation and encourage stakeholder ownership. Stakeholders: Facilitate broad participation from executive branch organizations and industry in a collaborative process that leads the stakeholders to take ownership of the architectures. Customer: Define and conduct external assessment and preliminary planning activities in a way that provides visibility to stakeholders, encourages their inputs and characterizes their participation. Customer: To have approved recommendations and transition strategies integrated into the FY02 DPG/JIG and tracked through the stakeholder/customer process life cycles. NSSA Strategic Plan Customer: To have recommendations from the Mission Information Management (MIM) ADT integrated into the FY02 DPG/JIG and subsequent POM/IPOM(s). Customers: Deliver relevant, timely and quality products responsive to customer needs Customer: Initiate up to two ADTs to influence the DPG/JIG and POM/IPOM(s). Customer: Remain postured for short-term/quick reaction studies in support of our customers and stakeholders. Vision: Leading a collaborative team -- creating tomorrow’s unified national security space architecture Customer: Make the NSSMP accessible in forms and forums which enhance community-wide decision-making. Customers: Establish the National Security Space Master Plan (NSSMP) as the source for a comprehensive picture of an integrated strategy from which policy and investment decisions will be made. Customer: Create the foundation for an integrated, cross-sector road map capability with access to information about the national security space enterprise. Internal: Complete the NSSA Management Plan and implement the necessary structures to enable and measure process repeatability. Mission: Forging the architecture for tomorrow’s integrated space capabilities to achieve national security objectives Internal: Complete the facility and infrastructure modifications necessary to enhance individual productivity. Internal Management: Ensure every individual understands their role in the organization and has the opportunity to achieve their full potential. Internal: Train and align the Senior Leadership Team to implement the strategic plan. Color Key: Front Office: Black Bus Ops: Orange Integration: Green Msn Info Mgmt: Red Core Capabilities: Blue Internal: Establish a strategic staffing plan to assure continued staffing of the NSSA with people who have the right skills and competencies. Internal: Enhance open communication throughout the entire org. Internal Management: Create and maintain a culture of trust, open communications, and shared responsibility Internal: Implement effective feedback mechanisms Internal: Apply appropriate architecture engineering and analysis disciplines to our work to ensure consistency and quality Innovation and Learning: Enable individual and organizational continuous improvement by equipping our team to exploit emerging best practices, new concepts for operations, and opportunities created by new technologies. Internal: Improve our ability to capture, retrieve and leverage NSSA intellectual capital through the use of knowledge management capabilities and technologies.

  42. Lessons Learned • Communicate the process steps widely. • Definitions are very important for consistency. • Senior Leadership involvement is critical for success and implementation. • If the leaders don’t buy-in, no one else will. • Must have an office OPR with authority to proceed. • Suitable leadership must facilitate the process, solicit participation from everyone, and ensure focus on the task.

  43. Lessons Learned (cont.) • Organizational consensus is vital for acceptance and execution. • Everyone should see themselves in the plan. • By involving everyone, the ability to implement strategy becomes more viable. • Patience during the process is paramount. • It will take many sessions & many iterations.