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Cholera. Louie and Yuki. Image. http:// /cholera. Symptoms . Abdominal cramps Dry mucus membranes or mouth Dry skin Excessive thirst Glassy or sunken eyes Lack of tears Lethargy Low urine output Nausea Rapid dehydration Rapid pulse (heart rate)

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Louie and Yuki


  • Abdominal cramps
  • Dry mucus membranes or mouth
  • Dry skin
  • Excessive thirst
  • Glassy or sunken eyes
  • Lack of tears
  • Lethargy
  • Low urine output
  • Nausea
  • Rapid dehydration
  • Rapid pulse (heart rate)
  • Sunken “soft spots” (fontanelles) in infants
  • Unusual sleepiness or tiredness
  • Vomiting
  • Watery diarrhea that starts suddenly and has a “fishy” odor
  • Take precautions about food and water
  • If outbreak occurs
    • Make sure there is clean water, food and sanitation
  • Vaccination is not very effective in managing outbreaks
  • Vaccination is not recommended for most travelers
how its spread
How its spread
  • Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
  • Usually spread by eating food or drinking water that is contaminated with the bacteria that causes cholera
  • Two ways cholera can get into water or food
    • Contaminated feces
    • Naturally
  • Cholera can spread rapidly in areas with inadequate treatment of sewage and drinking water
  • Shellfish, when eaten raw, have been a source of cholera, and a few people in the United States have contracted cholera after eating raw or undercooked shellfish from the Gulf of Mexico.
  • how many people get it
    • -3-5 million people worldwide get cholera
    • -100,000-130,000 people die

  • Incubation period = 5-18 days
  • Characteristics:
    • Rapid onset of fever
    • Malaise
    • Muscle pain
    • Headache
    • Inflammation of the pharynx
  • 6 days after incubation:
    • Vomiting
    • Bloody diarrhea
    • May develop maculopapular rash with bleeding at needle sites and bodily orifices
  • Making barriers such as face masks, gloves, goggles and a gown at all time
  • Isolation
  • No cure developed yet for humans
  • Vaccines for primates
how its spread10
How its spread
  • Early stages may not be highly contagious
  • Due to lack of equipment and hygienic practices, large-scale epidemics occur mostly in poor isolated areas without modern hospitals or well-educated medical staff


By Cindy and Kelly

what is it
What is it?
  • Dengue is transmitted by the bite of an Aedes mosquito infected with any one of the four dengue viruses.
  • It occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world.
  • Dengue fever is a febrille illness that affects infants, young children and adults.
  • 12,500 die each year, according to the World Health Organization
  • Appears within 3-14 days, after the infective bite
  • Range from a mild fever, to incapacitating high fever, with severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pain, and rash.
  • Dengue haemorrhagic fever (fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, bleeding) is a potentially lethal complication, affecting mainly children.

At All Times

  • Turn pails and watering cans over and store them under shelter.
  • Remove water in plant pot plates. Clean and scrub the plate thoroughly to remove mosquito eggs. Avoid the use of plant pot plates, if possible.
  • Loosen soil from potted plants to prevent the accumulation of stagnant water on the surface of the hardened soil.
  • Do not block the flow of water in scupper drains along common corridors in HDB estates. Avoid placing potted plants and other paraphernalia over the scupper drains.
  • Cover rarely used gully traps. Replace the gully trap with non-perforated ones and install anti-mosquito valves.
  • Cover bamboo pole holders after use. Rainwater can potentially accumulate in these bamboo pole holders if they are uncovered and create a habitat.
  • No tray or receptacles should be placed beneath and or/ on top of any air-conditioning unit so as not to create a condition favourable for mosquito breeding. 

Every other day

  • Change water in flower vases. Clean and scrub the inner sides of vases. Wash roots of flowers and plants thoroughly as mosquito eggs can stick to them easily.

Once a week

  • Clear fallen leaves and stagnant water in your scupper drains and garden. These leaves could collect water or cause blockages to the drains, thus resulting in the buildup of stagnant water.
  • Clear any stagnant water in your air cooler unit.

Once a month

  • Add prescribed amounts of sand granular insecticide into vases, gully traps and roof gutters, even if they are dry. You can see the list of retailers who carry sand granular insecticides in their stores at this webpage:
  • Clear away fallen leaves in roof gutters and apron drains. If structurally feasible, remove the roof gutters.
  • There are no specific antiviral medicines for dengue. It is important to maintain hydration.
  • Use of acetylsalicylic acid (e.g. aspirin) and non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. Ibuprofen) is not recommended.
  • Early clinical diagnosis and careful clinical management by experienced physicians and nurses increase survival of patients.
how started
How Started?

- Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus

  • High fever (temperature greater than 100.4°F [>38.0°C]).
  • Headache, an overall feeling of discomfort, and body aches.
  • Mild respiratory symptoms at the outset.
  • Some Diarrhea.
  • Dry cough.

The epidemic of SARS appears to have started in Guangdong Province, China in November 2002.

  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), a total of 8,098 people worldwide became sick with SARS during the 2003 outbreak. Of these, 774 died. In the United States, only eight people had laboratory evidence of SARS-CoV infection.
mad cow disease

Mad Cow Disease

Julia & Nati



You can make choices to lower your risk for contracting vCJD from contaminated beef:

Eat poultry and fish, or choose a vegetarian diet.  

Avoid beef products that may contain bits of spinal cord or brain tissue. These include ground beef, sausage, and hot dogs. Solid pieces of muscle meat are less likely to be contaminated. Bone-in cuts such as a T-bone steak and intestine are more risky.

If traveling to countries where BSE has been detected, such as the United Kingdom, Europe, Portugal, and Spain, don’t eat beef. Avoid having a blood transfusion overseas.

Milk and milk products are not thought to be affected or a means of transmittal.

how it spread
How it Spread
  • Outbreak in England was responsible for the death of nearly 200,000 cattle
  • Lead to slaughter of four and a half million non-infected
  • Although 95 percent of the mad cow disease cases have been located in the UK, several other countries have also identified infected cattle among their herds, including
    • Austria, Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany,
  • - Mad cow epidemic on global markets was huge
  • Several countries have closed their borders to European, British, American and Canadian beef imports for years.
  • - Japan, for example, was formerly the largest importer of U.S. beef, halted all imports from the U.S., diminishing exports by over 50 percent in this country.
mad cow disease symptoms
Mad Cow Disease Symptoms

Infected adult cattle may develop signs of the disease slowly. It may take from 2 to 8 years from the time an animal becomes infected until it first shows signs of disease. Symptoms in the animal include a change in attitude and behavior, gradual uncoordinated movements, trouble standing and walking, weight loss despite having an appetite, and decreased milk production. Eventually the animal dies. From the onset of symptoms, the animal deteriorates until it either dies or is destroyed (cattle who cannot stand are called “downers”). This disease process may take from 2 weeks to 6 months.

Similar symptoms may develop in humans: muscle spasms, lack of muscle control, worsening problems with memory.

Researchers looked at the first 100 people to develop vCJD in the United Kingdom and found psychiatric symptoms in early stages of the disease. These included depression, withdrawal, anxiety, and trouble sleeping. Within 4 months of the disease onset, those affected developed poor memory and an unsteady gait.


"Mad Cow Disease and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease." Web. 26 Sept. 2011. <>.