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Cholera. History. Miasma Theory The theory that diseases were caused by miasma or bad air arising from organic decay, filth, or other conditions of the local environment. ‘All smell is disease.’ English Sanitary reformer Edwin Chadwick, 1842.

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Presentation Transcript
cholera
Cholera

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

history
History
  • Miasma Theory
  • The theory that diseases were caused by miasma or bad air arising from organic decay, filth, or other conditions of the local environment.

‘All smell is disease.’

English Sanitary reformer Edwin Chadwick, 1842

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

slide4

‘The great mass of people…. don’t know that the miasma of an impure alley is productive of cholera and disease. If they did know these things, people would take care that they inhabited better houses.’English Liberal Economist, Richard Cobden 1853

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

slide5
‘We live in muck and filth. We aint got no priviz, no dust bins, no drains, no water-splies, and no drain or suer in the hole place…The Stenche of a Gully-hole is disgustin. We all of us suffer, and numbers are ill, and if the Colera comes Lord help us.We are living like piggs, and it aint faire we shoulde be so ill treted.’

Letter to the London Times 1849, signed by 54 slum dwellers

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

early cholera epidemiology
Early cholera epidemiology

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

the death of a patient from cholera represents a failure of healthcare silvere simeant who
‘The death of a patient from cholera represents a failure of healthcare.’Silvere Simeant, WHO

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

symptoms and treatment
Symptoms and Treatment
  • Rehydration
  • Antimicrobials

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

prevention
Prevention
  • Improved Sanitation
  • Clean water
  • Access to health care

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

cholera in zimbabwe
Cholera in Zimbabwe

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

ecology of cholera
Ecology of Cholera

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

slide15
Life cycle in humans
  • Host drinks water
  • Bacteria conserve energy during the passage through the stomach, most die
  • Surviving bacteria reach the intestine, produce flagella
  • Propel themselves through the mucus of the sm. intestine
  • Bacteria produce toxin causing diarrhea
  • Feces carry new bacteria back into drinking water

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

life cycle in water
Life cycle in water

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

different serotypes
Different serotypes

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

pathogenesis
Pathogenesis

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

biochemistry
Biochemistry
  • Cholera Toxin. The delivery region (blue) binds membrane carbohydrates to get into cells. The toxic part (red) is activated inside the cell (PDB code: 1xtc)

Robin Cochran-Dirksen

mugabe s statement
Mugabe's Statement

Robin Cochran-Dirksen