Instructional Models: Blueprints for Teaching Physical Education Mike Metzler Georgia State University Atlanta, Georgia email@example.com
What is an Instructional Model? An instructional model is a comprehensive and coherent plan for teaching that includes: • a theoretical foundation • intended learning outcomes • teacher’s content knowledge expertise • developmentally appropriate and sequenced learning activities • expectations for teacher and student behaviors • unique task structures • assessments of learning outcomes • benchmarks for assessing the implementation of the model
What are Instructional Models (really)? • Or, think of them as “Blueprints for learning” • Why a blueprint?
See the plan “on paper” Fit plan to setting Adjust before you start Determine materials Check progress Get others’ views Preview for user/owner Match final w/plan What can you do with a blueprint?
Curriculum Models: --Overall program content and goals --Yearly outcomes --Examples: Fitness Outdoor Education Movement Education Lifetime Sports Sport Education Instructional Models: --Unit learning goals --Unit content --Examples: Peer Teaching Direct Instruction Sport Education Collaborative Learning Curriculum Models and Instructional Models
Based on long term outcomes Based on teacher and student actions/roles One used for the entire unit Comprehensive by design Uses many strategies (Most often) based on short term outcomes Based on “who decides” Can use many in a single lesson or unit Very focused Each style is a strategy Differences b/t a Model and a StyleModel Style
Parts of Instructional Models • Foundations: • Theory and rationale • Assumptions about teaching and learning • A theme • Learning domain priorities and interactions • Student developmental requirements • Validation
Parts of Instructional Models • Teaching and Learning Features: • Directness and inclusiveness • Task presentation and learning tasks • Engagement patterns • Content progression plan • Teacher and student roles and responsibilities • Verification of instructional processes (benchmarking) • Assessment of learning
Parts of Instructional Models • Implementation Needs and Modifications: • Teacher expertise • Key teaching skills • Contextual requirements • Planning • Contextual modifications • Modifications for diverse groups of learners
Parts of Instructional Models • Learning Domain Priorities: • Psychomotor • Cognitive • Affective/Social • Combination
8 Instructional Models for PE • Direct Instruction • Personalized System for Instruction (PSI) • Cooperative Learning • Sport Education • Peer Teaching • Inquiry Teaching • Tactical Games • Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility
Themes for Instructional Models for PE • Direct Instruction: “Teacher as instructional leader” • Personalized System for Instruction (PSI): “Progress as fast as you can or as slowly as you need” • Cooperative Learning: “Students learning with, by, and for each other” • Sport Education: “Becoming competent, literate and enthusiastic sportspersons”
Themes for Instructional Models for PE • Peer Teaching: “I teach you, then you teach me” • Inquiry Teaching: “Learner as problem solver” • Tactical Games “Teaching games for understanding” • Teaching for Personal and Social Responsibility: “Integration, transfer, empowerment, and teacher-student relationships”
Using Instructional Models for Aligning… National/State/Provincial Standards for PE Curriculum Plan or Curriculum Model, with General Learning Outcomes (QEP Competencies) Instructional Units with Specific Learning Outcomes (“Key Features”) Instructional Model for Each Unit Student Engagement for Learning
Selecting an Instructional Model • Deductive process (do not start with a model in mind) • The decision starts with stating the desired learning outcomes, and then giving close attention to context, teacher, learners, standards, etc.
Selecting an Instructional Model • What is the most important learning outcome/s for this unit? • What is the content? • Who are the students? • What is the teacher’s expertise, re:content? • Are there any contextual/resource limitations? • What is the best model/s for this unit?
Quebec Education Plan General Outcomes for Elementary PE & H
Competency 2: To Cooperate in Developing a PlanCompetency 3: Carry Out a Plan to Change Some Personal Lifestyle Habits • Possible Models to Use: • Cooperative Learning • Peer Teaching
Benchmarks for Instructional Models • Used to verify if the teacher is following the model’s design: -- Some are for planning and management -- Some are for the teacher -- Some are for the students -- Some are for assessment
Some Resources for Model-Based Instruction in Physical Education • Instructional Models: Metzler, M. (2005). Instructional models for physical education (2nd Ed.). Scottsdale, AZ: Holcomb Hathaway. • Personalized System for Instruction (PSI): Metzler, M. (Ed.)(2000). The Personalized Sport Instruction Series. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. (6 PSI courses developed for college basic instruction programs) • Sport Education: Siedentop, D. (1994). Sport education: Quality PE through positive sport experiences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Siedentop, D. (2004). Complete guide to sport education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Some Resources for Model-Based Instruction in Physical Education • Tactical Games: Thorpe, R., Bunker, D. & Almond, L. (1982). Rethinking games teaching. Loughborough, England: Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Technology. Griffin, L., Mitchell, S. & Oslin, J. (1997). Teaching sports concepts and skills: A tactical games approach. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Mitchell, S., Oslin, J. & Griffin, L. (2003). Sport foundations for elementary physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility: Hellison, D. (2003). Teaching responsibility through physical activity (2nd Ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. • Cooperative Learning: Grineski, S. (1996). Cooperative learning in physical education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.