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Marzano’s Essential 9 High Leverage Instructional Strategies. Objectives. By the end of the session you will... examine research-based instructional strategies that affect student achievement identify various methods for teaching these strategies

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By the end of the session you will...

  • examine research-based instructional strategies that affect student achievement
  • identify various methods for teaching these strategies
  • determine which strategies you will incorporate in your classroom practice.
  • Robert Marzano, Debra Pickering, Jane Pollock
  • From books, Classroom Instruction That Works & The Handbook for Classroom Instruction that Works
  • Identified nine instructional strategies that are most likely to improve student achievement across all content areas and across all grade levels
clock buddies
Clock Buddies
  • Sign your name on the top of your paper.
  • Avoid people seated at your table.
  • Find a different partner for 2:00; 4:00; 6:00; 8:00; 10:00; 12:00
  • Trade signatures.
  • Sit down as soon as you have all signatures.
  • You have 2 minutes 14 seconds.
the essential nine categories of instructional strategies that affect student achievement
The Essential NineCategories Of Instructional StrategiesThat Affect Student Achievement
similarities and differences
Similarities and Differences


The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar characteristics allows students to understand (and often solve) complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way.

  • Find your 4:00 partner. Find another pair, finish the following statement.

Going back to school after Winter

vacation is like ______________

because _________________ .

identifying similarities and differences
Identifying Similarities and Differences

Variety of Ways


similarities and differences


grouping things that are alike


comparing two unlike things


identifying relationships between pairs of


identifying similarities and differences1
Identifying Similarities and Differences


For Classroom Practice

  • Give students a model for the process.
  • Use familiar content to teach steps.
  • Give students graphic organizers.
  • Guide students as needed.
summarizing and note taking
Summarizing and Note Taking


High leverage strategies because they:

- encourage powerful learning

- lead to deeper understanding

- endure long-term recall

Verbatim note taking is the least

effective way to take notes.



for Classroom Practice

  • Use summary frames
  • Use a rule-based summary strategy

(a set of rules students can follow to summarize text)


Use the Triad Summarizing format to summarize the article “Moving With the Brain in Mind”

Large Group Share

note taking
Note Taking


Note taking and summarizing are closely related. Both require students to identify what is most important about the knowledge they are learning and then state that knowledge in their own words.

note taking1
Note Taking


For Classroom Practice

  • Teach students a variety of note- taking formats.
  • Give students teacher-prepared notes.
  • Remind students to review theirnotes.
note taking2
Note Taking

Although note taking is one of the most useful study skills a student can cultivate, often teachers do not explicitly teach note taking strategies in the classroom.

note taking cornell notes
Note TakingCornell Notes

Find your10:00partner and share.

What elements of the Cornell note format make this type of note taking effective for students?

How could this format be adapted for use with younger students?

reinforcing effort
Reinforcing Effort

Believing in effort can serve as a powerful motivational tool that students can apply to any situation

reflecting on current beliefs and practices
Reflecting on Current Beliefs and Practices
  • Think, Pair, Share - Turn to your neighbor and discuss…
  • How do you reinforce students’ effort in your classroom?
  • What is the purpose for reinforcing effort in the classroom?
  • What makes reinforcing effort effective or ineffective?
  • What questions do you have about reinforcing effort?
  • People generally attribute success at any given task to one of four causes:
  • Effort
  • Other people
  • Ability
  • Luck
  • Three of these four beliefs ultimately inhibit achievement – (Covington 1983,1985)
generalizations from research
Generalizations from Research
  • Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort.

Implication is that teachers should explain and exemplify the “effort belief” to students.

Urdan,Midgley, & Anderman 1998

Generalizations from Research

Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort

Students who were taught about the relationship between effort and achievement increased their achievement more than students who were taught techniques for time management and comprehension of new material.

Van Overwalle & De Metsenaere, 1990

recommendations for classroom practice
Recommendations for Classroom Practice

Students need to be taught that effort can improve achievement.

  • Share personal examples of times you have succeeded because you did not give up
  • Share examples of well-known athletes and others who succeeded mainly because they did not give up
  • Have students share personal examples of times they succeeded because they did not give up.
recommendations for classroom practice1
Recommendations for Classroom Practice

Have students chart effort and achievement

Charting their effort and achievement will reveal patterns and help students see the connection between the two.

reinforcing effort1
Reinforcing Effort
  • Students know what is expected.
  • Fair and credible evaluations are used.
  • Curriculum is geared to standards.
  • Student responsibility for work is emphasized.
  • Results are fixed, time varies.
  • Recognition of accomplishment is utilized.


providing recognition
Providing Recognition

Providing recognition for attainment of specific goals not only enhances achievement, but it stimulates motivation


Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation.

Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance.

Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards.

Recommendations for Classroom Practice
  • Establish a rationale for reinforcing effort and providing recognition
  • Follow guidelines for effective and ineffective praise.
  • Link effort to achievement
  • Use the pause, prompt, and praise technique
checking for understanding


Read the four examples of providing recognition in the classroom.

In your group, evaluate each example according to the Guidelines for Praise.

Determine if recognition is Effective or Ineffective

Cite the specific criteria and explain your thinking.

Teacher Recognition

Example 1: Dana was unable to make any connections among the elements using a table of characteristics. Mr. Mulder suggests she focus on one characteristic and look for connections. When he returns later, Dana explains how she had figured out a way to group the elements according to boiling point. Mr. Mulder congratulates her on on finding a valid connection.

Example 2: Mr. Mulder circulates as students are working in small groups. He pauses at Station 1 and comments, “Nice work on your calculations.” At Station 2, he says, “Nice work on your graphs.” At Station 3, he says, “Nice work on your calculations.

Teacher Recognition

Example 3: “You really did a good job working through all of the steps and checking your answers for this problem. I know you’ve had difficulties with multi-step calculations before and sometimes settled for getting any answer down on paper, even if it wasn’t correct. Your determination with third task really showed.”

Example 4: “Good job. Jackson. Keep it up.”


On a post-it note answer this question.

Why are Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition included in the nine categories of Instructional Strategies proven to increase student achievement?

the essential nine categories of instructional strategies that affect student achievement1
The Essential NineCategories Of Instructional StrategiesThat Affect Student Achievement

Homework and practice

Nonlinguistic representations

Cooperative learning



  • Why homework?

- Students are in school a short time

- Homework extends learning beyond

the school day

  • Asset or Liability?

- It depends on how it is used

  • Take 3-4 minutes to answer these questions on the handout provided.
    • What are the purposes of homework?
    • What kind of homework do you assign your students?
    • What makes homework effective, and how do you know it has been?
    • What questions do you have about using homework?

Find your 2:00 partner and share

homework and practice
Homework and Practice


Both homework and practice give students opportunities to deepen their understanding and proficiency with content they are learning.




10 X the # of the grade as a guideline

-Parent involvement

Parents as facilitators

-Homework policy

Feasible & defensible expectations


Without one, it’s “busy work”

-Assignment sheets

Clarify what they are doing and why

-Feedback (be specific)

Can improve student achievement



  • Students need to practice skills and processes before they can use them effectively.
  • Goal is for learning a skill, not learning information.


For Classroom Practice

  • Determine which skills are worth practicing.
  • Schedule massed and distributed practice.
  • Help students shape a skill or process (explicit instruction and modeling)
non linguistic representations
Non Linguistic Representations


-Teachers typically present new

knowledge to students linguistically.

-Engaging students in the creation of

nonlinguistic representation actually

stimulates and increases activity in

the brain.

non linguistic representations1
Non Linguistic Representations


For Classroom Practice

  • Graphic organizers
  • Pictographic representations
  • Mental images
  • Physical models
graphic organizers
Graphic Organizers

Use Graphic Organizers to:

  • Activate current knowledge
  • Present information
  • Take notes
  • Summarize information
  • Assess student learning
graphic organizers1
Graphic Organizers
  • Graphic organizers make thinking visible.
  • Different graphic organizers represent different kinds of thinking.
  • Students must be taught how to use graphic organizers.
  • The goal is for students to be able to select the appropriate graphic organizer.
graphic organizers2
Graphic Organizers

Give One—Get One

  • Take two post-it notes, on each one, write one way that you have used graphic organizers in your classroom.
  • Share and exchange ideas with other participants.
cooperative learning
Cooperative Learning


Organizing students into cooperative groups yields a positive effect on overall learning if approach is systematic and consistent.

cooperative learning1
Cooperative Learning


For Classroom Use

  • Teach students the elements of cooperative learning
  • Vary grouping criteria

(informal, formal and base)

  • Manage group size

(3-5 students)

cooperative learning2
Cooperative Learning

Pair Square

Locate your Louvre Museum partner, find another team.

  • What activity did we do today that is an example of cooperative learning?
  • What are some ways you group students other than skill level?
setting objectives and providing feedback
Setting Objectivesand Providing Feedback


Students learn more efficiently when they know the goals and objectives of a specific lesson or learning activity.

setting objectives
Setting Objectives
  • What do students need to know and be able to do?
  • How do I know they got it?
  • What do I do when they don’t?
  • What do I do when they do?
setting objectives1
Setting Objectives
  • Mastery Objectives
  • Language Objectives
  • Written in Kid-Friendly Language
setting objectives2
Setting Objectives


For Classroom Practice

  • Set “standards-based” goals for a unit and encourage students to set personal learning goals on how they’ll achieve them.
  • Communicate learning objectives to parents so they can provide appropriate support to students.
setting personal learning goals
Setting Personal Learning Goals

GOAL: To become a better writer


  • I want to write more effective introductions with clear, concise thesis statements.
  • I want to use good paragraph form in my writing.
providing feedback
Providing Feedback


For Classroom Practice

  • Use various methods of assessment.
  • Feedback should be corrective in nature.
  • Give timely feedback.
  • Feedback should be specific to criterion.
  • Self-assessment tools may be used to gauge progress.
providing feedback1
Providing Feedback

“Academic feedback is more strongly and consistently related to achievement than any other teaching behavior. This relationship is consistent regardless of grade, socioeconomic status, race or school setting.”

Bellon, Jerry J. Teaching from a Research Knowledge Base. 1992

providing feedback2
Providing Feedback

Find your Anagram Partner and share.

Why are rubrics an excellent way to give students specific feedback?

generating and testing hypotheses
Generating and Testing Hypotheses


Generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge, which enhances learning.

generating and testing hypotheses1
Generating and Testing Hypotheses

Examples of Strategies

  • Systems Analysis
  • Problem Solving
  • Historical Investigation
  • Invention
  • Experimental Inquiry
  • Decision Making
generating and testing hypotheses2
Generating and Testing Hypotheses


For Classroom Practice

  • Give students a model for the strategy
  • Use familiar content to teach the strategy
  • Make graphic organizers available
  • Provide guided practice
  • Have students explain their hypotheses and conclusions
cues questions and advance organizers
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers


  • Cues

Explicit reminders about what a student is about to experience

  • Questions

Help students analyze what they already know

  • Advance Organizers

Help students retrieve what they know about a topic and focus on the new information

cues questions and advance organizers1
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers


For Classroom Practice


  • Telling students the topic of an article they are about to read
  • Reminding students to look for new information when reading
cues questions and advance organizers2
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers


For Classroom Practice


  • Higher-level questions require students to analyze information and apply what they know
cues questions and advance organizers3
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Research shows that…

1/3 of class interactions are questions

Primary grades: 150 per hour

Elementary/high: several hundred per day


cues questions and advance organizers4
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

Research shows that…



2/3 of class time is verbal

2/3 of that time is questions

2/3 are asked by teacher

2/3 are answered by teacher

advance organizers
Advance Organizers
  • Advance organizers are organizational frameworks teachers present to students prior to teaching new content to prepare them for what they are about to learn.
  • Advance organizers focus on essential information and get students ready to use the information.
advance organizers1
Advance Organizers


For Classroom Practice

  • SQRRR (survey, question, read, recite, review)
  • Narrative advance organizers (tell a story to make personal connections)
  • Expository
  • Skim a text
  • Use graphic organizers
advance organizers2
Advance Organizers

Find your Merovingian King partner and share:

  • Review SQ3R method. What are some ways you could implement this in your classroom?
review of objectives
Review of Objectives
  • examine research-based instructional strategies that affect student achievement
  • identify various methods for teaching these strategies
  • determine which strategies you will incorporate in your classroom practice.
shaping up review
Shaping Up Review

Four things that are important concepts from today’s session – one in each corner.

One thing that you loved learning about today

One all encompassing statement that summarizes today’s session.

Three most important facts from today’s session.