Instructional Focus Document NotesGrade 8/Social Studies UNIT: 03 TITLE: American Revolution Part 1: British Restrictions and Colonial Protest Cause & Effect
Explanation • Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa did not recognize the Treaty of Paris 1763, and tried to drive settlers out.
Cause • Settlers moving into the areas that the French had surrendered in the Treaty of Paris 1763.
Effect • British crushed the rebellion, and issued the Proclamation of 1763.
Explanation • Decision by the British to close off the area west of the Appalachian Mountains to settlement. No one could purchase lands.
Cause • Pontiac’s Rebellion showed that it would be too costly to protect such a large area. It was designed to protect the colonists
Effect • Colonists became angry because they felt their government was holding back what they rightfully won.
Explanation • Items like sugar, molasses, coffee and other products were taxed before they could enter the colonies.
Cause • Parliament (The governing body of Great Britain) needed to raise money to run the colonies, so it began to tax the colonists.
Effect • Colonists did not want to pay new taxes to Parliament. They complained. They claimed that it was “Taxation without representation!”
Explanation • A law passed in 1765 which taxed all printed material. Newspapers, land ordinances, marriage licenses, playing cards, etc. • Stamps had to purchased and applied to the product before it could be sold.
Cause • Since there were little more than complaints over the Sugar Act and Parliament still needed more money due to the high debt Britain ran up when fighting the French and Indians
Effect • Colonists were outraged. They formed the Stamp Act Congress and passed 14 resolutions in opposition to the Stamp Act. • Sons of Liberty began to organize. • Riots began to occur throughout the colonies and colonists refused to buy anything from England until the law was repealed. (Boycott)
Explanation • A statement that claimed that the colonies were subordinate to Parliament. • Parliament could pass any law it wanted.
Cause • Due to the repeal of the Stamp Act, which seemed like a surrender to colonists demands.
Effect • Colonists mostly ignored the statement, but it set the stage for further conflict.
Explanation • Indirect taxes placed on goods that made the prices much higher.
Cause • Since colonists felt that direct taxes were beyond Parliament’s authority, Parliament issued out indirect taxes.
Effect • Colonists organized a boycott and sent out a circular letter to all the colonies urging them to boycott British goods as well. • British minister Hillsborough moved two regiments of British soldiers into Boston
Explanation • An angry mob taunted a squad of soldiers who were guarding the customs house. • British soldiers fired into the crowd.
Cause • The mob was filled with mostly drunks who were looking for a fight. • They began throwing balls of ice and rocks at the soldiers
Effect • The soldiers were arrested and put on trial. • Many people now did not trust the soldiers of Britain. • Some radicals even began to hint at independence.
Explanation • Parliament granted the East India Tea Company total control of the tea market in the colonies. • Taxes were placed on the tea, even though… • Prices on tea fell.
Cause • The East India Tea Company had gone bankrupt and needed financial help, so Parliament decided to help them by making them the sole tea company.
Effect • Colonists were angered and colonial merchants were hurt financially since the monopoly created by Parliament was taking away all the business and money. • Boston Tea Party was the result. • Though the tax was low, Colonists still had no say on taxes being placed on them
Explanation • Several colonists and members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawk Indians snuck aboard several ships and dumped the tea into the harbor. • This action was an example of Civil Disobedience.
Cause • The Tea Act which had driven money away from local merchants and shippers.
Effect • About 15,000 pounds worth of tea was destroyed. • England became enraged • Parliament began to pass punishing acts to force the colonists to pay for the tea.
Explanation • A series of laws that were passed by Parliament, designed to punish the colonies for the Boston Tea Party. • They included the Boston Port Act, Massachusetts Governing Act, Quartering Act, and the restriction on the right to assembly.
Cause • The Boston Tea Party proved that the colonists needed to be controlled. • Parliament decided to pass laws that would limit the colonists’ freedoms.
Effect • Many people became frightened. • Even those who had disagreed with the Boston Tea Party felt that Parliament had gone too far. • Delegates from all of the colonies (except Georgia) met at the First Continental Congress to decide action.
Explanation • A group of delegates from all the colonies (except Georgia) met in Philadelphia to discuss the harsh British acts.
Cause • The Coercive Acts had frightened the colonists into taking some kind of action to protect themselves from further restrictions and acts.
Effect • The Congress condemned the “Intolerable Acts” (Coercive Acts) • They passed resolutions that repealed many British laws. • They attacked the policy of maintaining an army during peace time. • They enforced a ban on all British imports.
American Revolution • American Colonists had always enjoyed a sense of independence because the British usually left them alone. • The enlightenment had helped spread new ideas, new philosophies, and new political thought.
The American Colonists had always resented England’s policy of Mercantilism and how they used it to exploit the colonies in order to become wealthy with a favorable balance of trade to other European countries • With the British clamping down on many of the Colonists’ previous freedoms, they had expanded the already existing gap between the Colonists and mother England. • When the British had outlawed the meeting of assemblies, the Colonial legislatures (law makers) could no longer meet and keep affairs in order. This gave rise to more extreme groups known as the Patriots.
Radical and Moderate Patriots • Patriots began spreading word of independence throughout the colonies trying to persuade all the colonists to their view • Moderate Patriots wanted a peaceful resolution between England and the Colonies. (Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Ben Franklin) • Radical Patriots wanted immediate independence at any cost. (Sam Adams, John Hancock, Paul Revere)