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Cultural Practices of Reading Goal: To develop asset based pedagogies for responding to error in international student writing.
Overview Purple title = handout • Discovering our perceptions of error • The logic of errors • Helping international students become stronger writers • Developing productive and helpful responses to writing • What we learn from our students’ writing
Survey Says: Understand and analyze how we perceive error and our attitudes toward it. • Instructions: If you have already done so, please complete the survey located here: https://broad.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5cZv6ezQw4axOWV
Survey Says: Understand and analyze how we perceive error and our attitudes toward it. • Results: • Q1 • Q2 • Q3
Survey Says: Understand and analyze how we perceive error and our attitudes toward it. • We’re not alone: • In her 2011 study of 129 instructors from 4-year and 2-year instructors, Dana Ferris found four trends in teachers’ attitudes and approaches to L2 learners:
Survey Says: Understand and analyze how we perceive error and our attitudes toward it. • Teachers Unaware of L2 Students’ Needs Teachers Focused Primarily on L2 Writers’ Errors • Teachers Unsure of How Best To Help L2 Writers • Teachers Responsive to L2 Writers’ Varied and Differentiated
Why Consider Error? What research finds about the logic of error How we understand error is a matter of retention • Monolinguistic Assumptions (Matsuda) • Reproduction of Failure (Inoue) • Asset-Based Instruction (Kirkland, Kinloch, Ladsen-Billings)
Logic of Error: What research finds about the logic of error All Error Has Logic • Sign of cognitive overload (Waes et al) • Sign of social knowledge (Hull and Rose) • Sign of students’ growth and development (Shaughnessy) • Always has patterns to it (Polio, Ferris, Bitchener)
Logic of Error: What research finds about the logic of error All Error Has Logic • Signals our own linguistic and cultural expectations as readers • Cued by cultural and linguistic gaps • Understood when educate ourselves about students’ language and culture
Logic of Error: What research finds about the logic of error All Error Has Logic “Error marks the place where education begins” (Rose 1988, 189) for both teachers and students.
Helping International Students What research suggests are best practices • Types of feedback matter [direct corrective written and oral (in form of 30 min. mini lesson); corrective oral; direct corrective written; indirect corrective]. • Types of errors relate to types of language heritages but several common errors emerge (across Spanish, Chinese, Korean, Russian, & Turkish)
Helping International Students What research suggests are best practices Feedback should • Respond to what is being communicated as well as how • Uncover the knowledge and linguistic assets the students are demonstrating • Target a specific problematic linguistic domain • Happen at all points of drafting • Reinforce cumulatively across assignments in rubrics
Helping International Students What research suggests are best practices Targeted & Specific Sample Mini-Lesson • Targeted and specific to problematic linguistic domains (Bitchener 2008) • Discovers of the linguistic/cultural logics behind these lessons • Students look at section of own writing with articles (first mention and second mention) directly corrected above. • Teacher models correction with further sentences • Offers sample sentences to correct • Students apply corrections to selection of their own text • Teacher and aid circulate & give oral feedback of corrected texts • Peer reviews and rubrics reflect this lesson
Helping International Students Create 5-7 Mini Lessons Together Targeted & Specific Mini-Lesson Creation • Group into 6 • If you have a mini-lesson already in use, please share • Apply to the student writing models (Credit Consumption and Water Splashing) • If not, assign roles and together create a mini lesson (see handout) • Load your lessons to Angel
Helping International Students Adapt These Mini Lessons Targeted & Specific Mini-Lesson Adaptation • Students need time in class to integrate with verbal feedback given • Integrate only those patterns covered in mini-lesson into the peer review and rubric (total of 10-12/semester will cover the majority of common errors) • Grade these iteratively through the semester in rubrics (week #1 articles, week #2 articles and affixes, week #3 articles, affixes, verb tense, etc) 4. Use 1-2-1CF only when a student needs differentiation across language or ability background
Reflections • Let’s see if we moved the needle on our perceptions of errors • https://broad.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_5cZv6ezQw4axOWV • Post survey and results