The Menominee Native Americans A diverse culture with a rich history Michelle Smith EDU 210
history • Oldest continuous residents of Wisconsin • At the start of the treaty era, in the early 1800’s, the Menominee tribe occupied a land base of an estimated 10 million acres.
Brief timeline • 1634: Jean Nicolet, French made contact with the Menominee • 1775: Some fought against the American in the Revolutionary War • 1812: War of 1812, Some fought against the Americans • 1854: gave up lands except for a reservation on Wolf River in north-central Wisconsin • 1954 -1973: federal status Terminated • Two part plan • 1961: Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin was terminated, Tribal membership 3,270 Tribal land (Acres) 233,881 • 1972:Menomiee Restoration Act restored tribe
Treaties • 1817 March 30, at St. Louis, with the Chippewa • 1825 August 19, at Prairie du Chien, with the Sioux, Etc., • 1827 August 11, at Butte des Morts • 1831 February 8, at Washington • 1831 February 17, at Washington • 1832 October 27, • 1836 September 3, at Cedar Point • 1848 October 18, at Lake Powawhaykonnay • 1854 May 12, at Falls of Wolf River • 1856 February 11, at Keshena
Spiritual beliefs • Believed that children and elders were closest to the spirits • If a baby was unhappy, a special healer would find out why. Often it was thought that a certain ancestor spirit has been reborn in the baby and wanted the baby’s name changed. Therefore, a naming ceremony was held to give that child that ancestor’s name.
Culture • Algonquin speaking nation • Menominee refer to themselves as mameqtaw meaning “the people” • Other indian tribes call them menominee, derived from manomin- an algonkian word for wile rice as it is a staple food for the tribe. (mpm.edu) • French called them “the nation of wild oats”
Culture • Lived by hunting, fishing and gathering • Wild rice= staple food • Augmented by corn, beans and squash • Some food was dried in the sun to save for the winter • Boiling and roasting were common cooking methods • Maple sugar and syrup were commonly used as sweeteners and flavorings
Geography • Once occupied over 10 million acres of land which is now central and mid-eastern Wisconsin
Culture- Clans • Clans • Bear • Eagle • Moose • Crane • Wolf (Facts and figures 2004)
Bear Clan • Speakers and keeper of the law
Eagle/Thunder Clan • Freedom and justice
Moose Clan • community or individual security
Crane Clan • Crane Clan: architecture, construction and art
Wolf Clan • Hunting and gathering
Current location • Current location: • Current Menominee indian reservation is located about 45 miles northwest of Green Bay. • The reservation is 235,523 acres and countains roughly 223,500 acres of heavily forested lands
Affects on the tribes social and economic conditions today • Today Menominee are on their way to economic progress • Multi-million dollar organization • Provides employment to its people along with services such as a clinic, police protection, and a Tribal school