age of discoveries 1500 1750 n.
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Age of Discoveries (1500-1750). Mercantilism. Money Credit. Spice Routes. Christopher Columbus. European Voyages. New Continent, Changing Worldview . s alvation history history of progress. Columbian Exchange: Exchange of Plants, Animals & Diseases. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.

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new continent changing worldview
New Continent, Changing Worldview

salvation history

history of progress

age of exploration technologies
Age of Exploration Technologies

astrolabe: measures latitude

magnetic needle (compass): measures direction

maps & skilled mapmakers


medieval scientific philosophy abandoned in favor of new methods

the importance of experimentation to the scientific method reaffirmed

the importance of God to science invalidated

pursuit of science itself (rather than philosophy) gained validity on its own terms

abandoning medievalism
Abandoning Medievalism

collaboration with mathematical & astronomical communities

inadequacy of medieval experimental methods

access to legacy of European, Greek, and Middle Eastern scientific philosophy

British Royal Society helped validate science providing an outlet for publication


Scientific Developments

Particular view of the nature of reality

Insistence on exact observation

Universe a vast machine operating according to mathematical laws

Conceptions of divinity changed

scientific developments
Scientific Developments

Nicolaus Copernicus : heliocentric theory of cosmology

Galileo Galilei: laws for falling bodies

William Harvey: blood circulates

Johannes Kepler: laws of planetary motion

Antony van Leeuwenhoek: single lens microscopes

Isaac Newton: elliptical orbits of the planets & law of universal gravitation

particular view of the nature of reality
Particular view of the nature of reality

Science can account for only those aspects of nature that are accessible to scientific methods of observation and explanation

insistence on exact observation
Insistence on exact observation

No explanation of a fact or event in nature has been acceptable unless it has taken into account all of the observed data

universe a vast machine operating according to mathematical laws
Universe a vast machine operating according to mathematical laws

the vast universe came more and more to be seen and felt as a collection of physical bodies moving through space according to immutable mathematical laws

conceptions of divinity changed
Conceptions of divinity changed

no longer saw the necessity of postulating the presence of a deity to explain the workings of the universe


increasing control of physical forces

master nature for own purposes