What are the productive skills? • Speaking and writing • What is “speaking”? • Speaking is communicating information through the spoken word.
What is the goal of teaching receptive skills? • The students demonstrate that they have understood something. • What is the goal of teaching productive skills? Students are able to do something (e.g. talk about something or learn about others). We want to create a skill in order to accomplish a task.
What does speaking involve? knowing and using the following in order to convey intended meaning: • appropriate vocabulary and expressions • correct pronunciation • correct word order • body language, tone, and facial expressions
What are some classroom activities that we can use to teach young learners speaking?
Activities • Role plays, • Drills, • Songs, • Chants, • Simulation, • Conversation partners.
Dialogue = the script is provided and students read it. (*Substitution of language points in the dialogue is also common “dialogue” activity). • Role-play = the script is not provided. Students use the language they have learned on their own in a situation provided by the teacher.
Frameworks for teaching speaking • Do you know of any frameworks (models to follow for planning your lessons) that can be used for teaching speaking?
PPP P = Presentation • Teacher “presents” the target language P = Practice • Students practice the target language • (ex: listen and repeat, substitution drills, dialogues, etc) P = Production • Students produce the target language on their own • (ex: making their own sentences, conversations, etc)
What are the steps you have to go through to teach someone to ride a bike?
Encounter: Introduce learner to bike assess prior knowledge asks learner about parts of bike introduce key concepts and vocabulary model the task/skills for learner Internalize: controlled practice – trainer holds bike while leaner rides less controlled practice – trainer removes support gradually so learner can internalize Fluency: learner rides bike with out support from trainer learner is given a task that demonstrates his/her ability such as:Ride the bike to the store and buy two ice cream cones.
EIF E = Encounter Students “encounter” the target language through an activity of some kind (rather than teacher “presenting” the target language) I = Internalize Students “internalize” the target language through practice (controlled practice activities free practice activities) F = Fluency Students “USE” the target language on their own they become fluent in using the target language
Lesson Staging in EIF • In the “INTERNALIZE” stage of a productive skill lesson, activities should be scaffolded and staged step-by-step from: • CONTROLLED practice FREE practice • focus on ACCURACY build towards FLUENCY • So, by the end of the INTERNALIZE stage, students will be able to move onto the FLUENCY stage and be able to USEthe language freely on their own.
Typical FLUENCY activities All levels: • pair conversations • games • information gaps • interviews/surveys • dialogues (internalize activity only) • role plays (usually only for fluency) • discussions
Fluency = target language is no longer provided for students so that they are usingthe language on their own and the focus is onfluency.
Purpose of writing • Present information, ideas and feelings for a variety of purposes • Enhance oral development and reinforce the language structures and vocabulary that learners acquire • Develop students’ communication • Demonstrate one’s creativity and critical thinking.
Creativewriting Creative writing is writing that expresses the writer's thoughts and feelings in an imaginative, often unique, and poetic way. Creative writing is guided more by the writer's need to express feelings and ideas than by restrictive demands of factual and logical progression of expository writing.
What can teachers do to develop learners’ creativity?
Choose interesting topics for students • Ask them to go beyond the given information • Allow them time to think • Reward their creative efforts • Value their creative attributes
Creative writing practice is a critical part of learning a written language.Writing can be encouraged through poetry, stories, plays and dialogues
Technical writing conveys specific information about a technical subject to a specific audience for a specific purpose.
What is the difference between the technical and creative writing?
Creative writing deals with writing from your imagination, with no guidelines or rules, while technical writing deals with writing off a basis of rules that must be thoroughly proofread.
Why is Writing so Difficult?
The reason is probably because writing is a process, not a problem to be solved or a question to be answered. Good writing most often comes from an creative cycle of drafting, revising, and editing.
SlowDown! • What writing teachers and tutors often have to do is slow the student down. It is only natural that a student at any level will think faster than he or she can write.
CALL; Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning in which the computer and computer-based resources such as the Internet are used to present, reinforce and assess material to be learned and usually includes a substantial interactive element.
History of CALL CALL'sorigins can be tracedbacktothe 1960s. Upuntilthelate 1970s CALL projectswereconfinedmainlytouniversities, wherecomputerprogramsweredeveloped on largemainframecomputers. Inthelate 1970s, thearrival of thepersonalcomputer (PC) broughtcomputingwithintherange of a wideraudience, resulting in a boom in thedevelopment of CALL programsand a flurry of publications
Early CALL favoured an approach that drew heavily on practices associated with programmed instruction. This was reflected in the term Computer Assisted Language Instruction (CALI), which originated in the USA and was in common use until the early 1980s, when CALL became the dominant term.
Advantages of CALL • Interest and motivation • Individualization • A compatible learning style • Optimal use of learning time • Immediate feedback • Error analysis • Guided and repetitive practice
Somedisadvantages of CALL • Lack of trained teachers • No discussion • No creativity • No eye contact • No chance to ask the points unclear
www.using.english.com • www.history-of-call.org • www.llas.ac.uk/resources • www.efidrew.wordpress.com • www.merchantcircle.com/blogs/A.Home.Tutors • http://wiki.answers.com
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