Teaching Language Skills Integrating the “Four Skills” By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Introduction • For more than six decades teaching of English has identified the “four skills” to focus on. • ESL curricula and textbooks around the world tend to focus on one or two of the four skills, sometimes to the exclusion of the others. • By treating the four skills in separate segments of the curriculum, there is a recent trend toward skill integration. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to integrate ? • There is a recent trend toward skill integration. • Let say, by teaching reading we may take more of a “whole language approach” whereby reading is treated as one of two or more interrelated skills. • A course that deals with reading skills will also deal with related listening, speaking, and writing skills. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
New paradigm of reading class • A paraphrase of a section of the reading passage. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
This paradigm of teaching brings students to the real life integration of language skills. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to maintain the integrated skills • There are five models in common use to maintain an integrated-skills focus in your teaching. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
1. Content-based instruction • CBI is the integration of content learning with language teaching aims (Briton, Snow and Wesche, 1989). • Language becomes the medium to convey informational content of interest and relevance to the learner, then learners are pointed toward matters concern. • Language takes on its appropriate role as a vehicle for accomplishing a set of content goals. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to do with CBI By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Example of content-based curricula By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
2. Theme-based instruction By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to do with TBI By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
This TBI for intermediate students; By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
For beginning students • Use imperatives (Don’t bring any food to the classroom) • Practice verb tenses (The ozone layer is vanishing) • Develope new vocabulary • Learn cardinal and ordinal number • Work with simple conversation; A: Why do you smoke? B: Because I like it A: You shouldn’t smoke B: Well, it makes me less nervous A: But it’s not good for your health B: I don’t care A: Wel, you will die young By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
3. Experiental learning • This is an overlapping of CBI and TBI concept of language learning. • EL allows students to find “concrete experiences” through which they discover language principles by trial and error, by processing feedback, by building hypothesis, and by revising the assumptions in order to become fluent. • Teachers give students opportunities to use language as they handle with the problem solving complexities. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to deal with EL By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
The advantage of EL By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
4. The episode hypothesis By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Teaching with EH • Look at this dialogue Jack: Hi, Tony. What do you usually do on weekends? Tony: Oh, I usually study, but sometimes I go to a movie. Jack: Uh huh. Well, I often go to movies, but I seldom study. Tony: Well, I don’t study as much as Greg. He always studies on the weekends. He never goes out. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How the EH relates to the integrated skills teaching By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
5. Task-based teaching By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
How to do with TB teaching For example to teach students to give personal information in a job interview; • Exercises in comprehension of wh- questions with do- insertion (When do you work at Macy’s?) • Drills in the use of frequency adverbs (I usually work until 5 o’clock) • Listening to extracts of job interview • Analyzing the grammar of the interview • Modeling an interview; teacher & one student or students in pairs. By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Input for tasks • It may come from a variety of authentic sources: By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Conclusion • Teaching English may be done by doing integrated language skills. • We may to do so through five models of teaching; • Content-based instruction • Theme-based instruction • Experiental learning • The episode hypothesis • Task-based teaching By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.
Thank you By: Iwan Fauzi, M.A.