Factors to consider in Language Teaching Learner Variables • In modern language classes past plays an important role grammar-oriented classes teacher-dominated • Eliminating them creates problems for both students and teachers • The teacher is responsible for teaching, the learner is responsible for learning
Affective Variables • Affective domain : Learner’s emotions, attitudes and personalities • Affective domain plays the most important role in language learning • Emotions control the will to activate or to shut down the cognitive functions • Overachievers or underachievers (according to the positive or negative input influencing achievement)
Affective Variables Self-concept: Students with a high esteem overcome the negative effects of risk-taking activities (eg. speaking and oral participation) If they think they can, it is easier to succeed. They are ready to participate and prepare. Negative - they tend to adopt defensive procedures to protect themselves from the discomfort of failure The students develop some self-concept characteristics related to their experiences in class.
Affective Variables • Attitude: Attitude of the learner to the target language, people who speak it and the culture of it – positive(high regard), negative or mixed. • advantages of knowing that language -future needs, travelling to that country, communicate with those people • think that learning of that language is difficult or easy- eagerness to learn • attitude to teacher and class - rumors about the teacher, lesson • motivation of the student, some are selective(success in some subjects), some would like to have good results in all subject
Affective Variables Perseverance: ( determination)Languages being different than other academic subjects Language needs to, • develop language skills • retain for the use of language • built up their own skill • long time needed to learn • sustained commitment • concentrated effort
Affective Variables • Internal versus external locus of control: reaction to success or failure • internals attribute success or failure to their own ability and efforts, more concentrated, more resistant, prefer situations for their abilities • externals consider the outside world – conditions, more affected by the social conditions in the classroom, prefer chance situations
Affective Variables • Introversion versus extraversion: Both have advantages in language learning • introverts (shy) are more dedicated to work, eager to learn, tend to seek another cultural group to associate • (outgoing) – extroverts’ willingness to practice and develop communication skills , effective participation with less fear of risk-taking
Affective Variables Interests and needs: students' individual needs and teachers' dealing with them • Connecting interests • Motivation • Take advantage of different interests • Schema theory • No relation between the class and the needs=less effort and less learning
COGNITIVE VARIABLES Cognitive psychologists view learning as internal and mentalistic The mind is viewed as an information processor Some cognitive variables that influence the development of second language skills will be studied accordingly
COGNITIVE VARIABLES • Background knowledge: Knowledge of L1, reading well in L1 influence learning another language positively. Knowing another foreign lang. helps a lot • Cognitive style: ability of the learner for using their intellect in specific ways to learn, analytical-field dependent, sharpeners(flexible for new conditions), levelers(unable to change previous mental set) • Learning skills: Different from other subjects - background knowledge plays an important role in second language learning
COGNITIVE VARIABLES • Learning strategies: unproductive and ineffective strategies for learning the material • Misguided reading strategy : looking up all unknown words • waiting until called on for an answer • instead of reading the sentence looking for a cue word Positive approaches by the teachers can overcome these problems and assistance of teachers in need of help
Aptitude: ear for languages and language learning disabilities • teachers to improve counseling system • focus on the strategies of good language learners • Identify the sts’ own productive learning strategies • Intelligence: Highly intelligent sts learn the language better
Social Variables These can have positive and negative effects • Social Context: languages are learned in social situations - social environment of the class differs from the real world ( authentic language tasks can help)
Social Variables • A sense of Belonging: Native speakers learn the language better because they belong to that community. Risk taking to speak to the foreigners, sense of security and belonging can be a burden to the learners. • Language and Culture Shock: Reaction of uncertainty, rejection, hostility. Teachers esp. should be careful not to criticize nor attack the student's native language or culture.
Biological Variables • Sex: Females may learn a language better than males, seem to get higher marks, more enrollment to language dept. • Age: Early age learning- children learn better in out-of-class learning situations, adults in formal classroom settings, grammar and abstract situations.