The Prepare Curriculum: Teaching Pro-Social Skills: Productive Intervention Strategies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Prepare Curriculum: Teaching Pro-Social Skills: Productive Intervention Strategies

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    1. The Prepare Curriculum: Teaching Pro-Social Skills: Productive Intervention Strategies Mark Amendola, L.C.S.W. Robert Oliver, Ed.D.

    3. Modeling (Skill Demonstration by Trainers) + Role-Playing (Skill Rehearsal by Youth) + Performance Feedback (By Trainers and All Youth in Group) + Generalization Training (To Increase Both Transfer and Maintenance) Skillstreaming Procedures

    5. Social Neuro Science John Cacioppo & Gary Bertston .our social interactions play a role in re-shaping our brain through neuroplasticity.. .our repeated experiences sculpt the shape, size and number of neurons and their synaptic connectedness.

    6. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group I: Beginning Social Skills Listening Starting a Conversation Having a Conversation Asking a Question Saying Thank You Introducing Yourself Introducing Other People Giving a Compliment

    7. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group II: Advanced Social Skills Asking for Help Joining In Giving Instructions Following Instructions Apologizing Convincing Others

    8. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group III: Skills for Dealing with Feelings Knowing your Feelings Expressing Your Feelings Understanding the Feelings of Others Dealing with Someone Elses Anger Expressing Affection Dealing with Fear Rewarding Yourself

    9. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group IV: Skills Alternatives to Aggression Asking for Permission Sharing Something Helping Others Negotiation Using Self-Control Standing Up for Your Rights Responding to Teasing Avoiding Trouble with Others Keeping Out of Fights

    10. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group V: Skills Dealing with Stress Making a Complaint Answering a Complaint Being a Good Sport Dealing with Embarrassment Dealing with Being Left Out Standing up for a Friend Responding to Persuasion Responding to Failure Dealing with Contradictory Messages Dealing with an Accusation Getting Ready for a Difficult Conversation Dealing with Group Pressure

    11. Skillstreaming the Adolescent Group VI: Planning Skills Deciding on Something to Do Deciding What Caused a Problem Setting a Goal Deciding on Your Abilities Gathering Information Arranging Problems by Importance Making a Decisions Concentrating on a Task

    12. Goals of Anger Control: To better recognize, understand, and manage anger. To teach that anger is a natural human emotion experienced by everyone. To teach self-reflection to clarify our motivation for getting angry. To increase awareness of thoughts and emotions that lead up to anger.

    13. Multi-Step Sequence Trainees are first helped to understand how they typically perceive and interpret the behavior of others in ways that arouse anger. Focus is given to outside occurrences and inner perceptions that initiate the anger experience.

    14. Anger Control Training Triggers: External Internal + Cues + Reducers + Reminders + Self-Evaluation + Skillstreaming Skill Use

    15. SITUTAIONAL PERCEPTION TRAINING The actual performance of a social skill on a particular social context. Teaches what did the individual need to do (behavioral component) and where, when and with whom was it done (situational component). Assist with the evaluation of a social setting and which specific skill should be utilized.

    16. Sociomoral Development & Delay (Kohlberg, 1984) The development of more mature moral cognition through experiences of taking the perspectives of others. Thinking or cognition refers to basic patterns or structures of mature or immature thought.

    17. Why is Mature Moral Judgment Important? AS YOU THINK, YOU ACT

    18. Delay in Thought and Behavior Antisocial youth show prolonged immaturity in the stage of moral judgment. They also demonstrate persistent and pronounced egocentric bias.

    19. Moral Reasoning Training Dilemma discussion groups designed to teach children how to: Think about moral issues. Deal with moral situations that do not have clear-cut solutions. Use principles of fairness and justice in their interactions with others.

    20. Moral Reasoning Goals Increase the moral reasoning stage of the trainees. Help the trainees use newly learned and more advanced reasoning skills in the real world.

    21. Four Phases of Social Decision- Making Meetings Consolidating Mature Morality

    22. The Prepare Curriculum Problem-Solving Training Session 1 Introduction Session 2 Stop and Think Session 3 Problem Identification Session 4 Gathering Information (Own Perspective) Session 5 Gathering Information (Others Perspectives) Session 6 Alternatives Session 7 Evaluating Consequences and Outcomes Session 8 Practice

    23. The Prepare Curriculum: Empathy Training Readiness Training Acquisition of empathy preparation skills Elimination of empathy skill acquisition inhibitors Perceptual Training Situational perception training Programmed self-instruction Observational sensitivity training Peace 4 Kids Extension of Aggression Replacement Training

    24. (Empathy Training continued) Cognitive Analysis Training Discrimination training Exposure plus guided practice Communication Training Didactic-experiential training Interpersonal living laboratory Relationship enhancement Transfer and Maintenance Training

    25. The Prepare Curriculum: Stress Management Training Progressive Relaxation Training Yogaform Stretching Breathing Exercises Physical Exercise Somatic Focusing Thematic Imagery Meditation

    26. The Prepare Curriculum: Cooperation Training Cooperative Learning Student teams-achievement divisions Jigsaw II Teams-games-tournaments Learning together Team assisted individualization Group investigation Jigsaw Cooperative Gaming Ages 3-7: Jack-in-the-box name game Partner gymnastics Cooperative hide-and-seek Frozen bean bags Ages 8-12: New basketball Tug of peace Three-sided soccer All on one side Adolescent: Strike-outless baseball Octopus massage Mutual storytelling Brussels sprouts

    27. Cooperative Gaming Everyone who wishes to play can. Everyone plays an equal amount of time via use of simultaneous games and frequent substitution when necessary. Everyone has equal opportunity to play each position. Players compete against own past performance, not each other. Skill emphasis is on self-improvement. No goals are counted, no points awarded, no score kept.

    28. (Cooperative Gaming continued) Extrinsic rewards (trophies, awards) are deemphasized. Cooperative skills are actively encouraged, e.g., all must touch ball before a shot can be taken. Multi-ball, multi-goal games are used. Individual penalties are not announced to minimize reinforcement of attention. Expulsion from game is used for deliberate attempts to injure another player.

    29. The Prepare Curriculum: Understanding and Using Groups Forming The warm-up wave! Breaking the ice Graphics: self-disclosure activities Being part of the group Storming Discrimination games Trust-level disclosures Model-building: an intergroup competition

    30. (Understanding & Using Groups continued) Norming Process observation: a guide Role nominations: a feedback experience Choosing new colors The gift of happiness: experiencing positive feedback Performing Top problems: a consensus-seeking task Stretching: identifying and taking risks Line-up and power inversion: an experiment Adjourning Bus ride

    31. Successful Alternative Schools Remedial, not soft jails Clear and consistent academic and behavioral goals Motivated, empathic, and culturally diverse staff Responsiveness to individual learning styles Small class size High performance standards and expectations Daily attendance and progress reports Full days of study, rigorous workloads Continual monitoring and evaluation Mandatory student and parent counseling Administrative commitment and financial support

    32. Aggression Reduction Strategies Unproductive Punishment Catharsis Cohabitation Productive Complexity Prescriptiveness Situationality Learned behavior

    33. Delinquents on Delinquency: Punitive Strategies Incarceration Harsher incarceration Mandatory incarceration Longer incarceration Sentence youths as adults Incarceration of parents Incarceration with attack dog Life sentences Life sentences without food Stricter parents and schools Involuntary drug rehab Curfew More gun use by store owners House arrest by parents

    34. Delinquents on Delinquency: Rehabilitative Strategies Early adoption of unwanted children School Uniforms Longer school hours Learning how to think Classes on delinquency Self-esteem groups Pictures of the future Earlier work permits Counseling advertisements Closing of housing projects Videos of incarcerated youths Celebrity campaigns Less biased police Delinquents as store detectives Vans to pick up truants Alcohol-free bars and dances Psychologists at arcades Rewarding nondelinquency

    35. Consequence Moderator Variables Likelihood of Consequence Consistency of Consequence Immediacy of Consequence Duration of Consequence Severity of Consequence Possibility of escape or avoidance of Consequence Availability of alternative routes to goal Level of instigation to aggression Level of reward for aggression Characteristics of the prohibiting agents

    36. Multiple Causes of Aggressive Behavior Causes Examples Physiological predisposition Male gender, high arousal, temperament Cultural context Societal traditions and mores which encourage/restrain aggression Immediate interpersonal Parental/peer criminology; aggressive models environment in movies and on TV Immediate physical Temperature, noise, crowding, traffic, environment pollution Personal qualities Self-control, repertoire of alternative prosocial values and behaviors Disinhibitors Alcohol, drugs, successful aggressive models Presence of means Guns, knives, other weapons Victim characteristics Gender; size; behavior during crime

    37. Aggression Characteristics of Possible Prescriptive Relevance High Intensity vs Low Intensity Proactive vs Reactive Overcontrolled vs Undercontrolled Early Onset vs Late Onset Overt vs Covert vs Authority Conflict

    38. Prescriptive Intervention by Type of Aggression Proactive aggression Reactive aggression Object-oriented Person-oriented Goal: to obtain, dominate Goal: to hurt, injure Cold-blooded Angry, volatile Example: mugging Example: aggravated assault Crimes premeditated Crimes of passion Possible interventions: Possible interventions: Consistent punishment for Anger Control training aggression Empathy training Consistent reward for prosocial behavior Social skills training

    39. Aggressive Incidents Horseplay Rules violation Disruptiveness Refusal/defiance Cursing Bullying Sexual harassment Physical Threats Vandalism Out-of-control behavior Student-student fights Attacks on teachers Use of weapons Collective violence

    40. Contextual Correlates and Causes of Aggression There is more aggression: In schools The larger the school In the cafeteria, stairwells, and bathrooms than in classrooms In March than in any other month In 7th grade than in any other grade With autocratic or laissez-faire school administrators than withfirm but fair

    41. (continued) In prisons The larger the prison The older the prison The more the external (in and out) traffic The more the internal (within) traffic The less the contact between the warden and prisoners The fewer the number of work assignments The less the education of the correctional officers

    42. (continued) In sports By members of the home team than by the visiting team When the team is in the middle of its league standings Later in the game than earlier in the game Later in the season than earlier in the season Behind the net in hockey; near the 50-yard line in football

    43. Corporal Punishment at Home Legal in all 50 states Applied to 90% of U.S. children 56% slapped or spanked 31% pushed or shoved 10% hit with object 3% object thrown at child Peak application by age 3 to 4 Still applied to 25% of U.S. adolescents

    44. (Corporal Punishment at Home continued) Sons hit more than daughters Older parents less likely to hit Parents hit during adolescence are themselves more likely to hit Parents who hit each other are more likely to hit

    45. Corporal Punishment at School Legal in 23 states Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama highest 700,000 instances per year in U.S. Disproportionately applied to Minority youth/Learning disabled youth/Emotionally disturbed youth School policy and procedure Number of strokes/Intensity of strokes/Size of paddle/Presence of a witness/Prior parental approval