CHY 4U0 – West and the WorldUnit 1- Renaissance and Reformation PowerPoint has new layouts that give you more ways to present your words, images and media. Emerging from the Dark Ages 1450-1600
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Dark Ages – or Middle Ages identifies a era of European history between the collapse of the Roman Empire in the 5th Century and the Renaissance. It is generally agreed that during this time, Western Europe experienced a protracted period of cultural decline followed by several eras leading to the eventual recovery of learning. The Renaissance was an intellectual and artistic flourishing that began in Italy around 1350. By 1500 it had spread throughout most of Europe The Reformation was also an intellectual movement, although its scope was significantly more narrow as it encompassed only religious issues.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Dark Ages - Feudalism was a social system of western Europe which developed during the 8th and 9th Centuries in which vassals were protected by their lords in exchange for service on their land and in war One's social status was not achieved through effort or desire but through one's own birthright. Some of this ideology carries over to today in institutions such as royal bloodlines and a monarch's duty to their people.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation • What Made the Dark Ages 'Dark"? • Illiteracy • Ignorance • Superstition • Control • Denial of Free Thought • Absolute Authority of the Catholic Church and its Popes • The Black Death • Torture • Warfare
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Shifting From the Dark Ages to the Enlightenment If an ideology is a large idea believed by most if not all and its examples include such ideas as communism and capitalism – it is clear that there is room for some disagreement • A larger organism than a simple philosophical disagreement between ways of running an economy or selecting a leader also exists. • When Europeans finally realized the following – things could never be the same: • The Earth is not Flat • The Planet Earth is neither the centre of the solar system nor the universe • The Holy Bible could be read by the masses once printed in the language of the people. • It is possible for science to explain things left unexplained in the Bible.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Once a change occurs from which we may never return – it is said that a paradigm has in fact shifted. The emergence of Europe from the Dark Ages to the era of the Renaissance and then to the Enlightenment is referred to as a paradigm shift. Our "question du jour" is of course – What series of events acted as a catalyst, propelling Europe into modernity?
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation • Under the rules of feudalism, it is the responsibility of the • nobility of the land to protect the lives and well-being of the • peasants within their domain. • Some of the failures of this responsibility cast significant doubt into the minds of the masses: • The failure of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the established nobility of the Byzantine Empire to stop the advance of the invading Islamic armies. • The faith of the masses evaporated as even the pious members of the Church were falling victim to the deadly plague. • The Holy Crusades that attempted to reestablish Christian control over the Holy Lands.
The Black Death Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Black Death ~ On the Lighter Side
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Crusades The Crusades were organized by the Roman Catholic Church in an effort to restore religious and territorial control over lands that were formerly Christian but were now under the control of the Islamic Empire. The Crusades originally had the goal of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslim rule and were launched in response to a call from the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire for help against the expansion of the Muslim Turks. The Islamic Empire was seen as a threat to Christians in both Eastern and Western Europe as it was conquering most of the lands of the Byzantine Empire and spreading across the Mediterranean Sea grabbing islands such as Crete, Cyprus, Malta and Sicily. They even managed to successfully control Spain for over 400 years.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Crusades We will not be debating the morality, intent, or effectiveness of the Crusades but we will be studying the unquestionable and lasting effects of the Crusades on European culture. With its strategic location, Italy became the gathering and launching point for the countless thousands of crusaders over the years between the First Crusade in 1095 to the Ninth Crusade ending in 1272 One of the most influential families in Italy was the Medici family. Their influence in Italy began well before and continued well after the crusades.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Crusades It is the Medici family that provided much of the funding for the crusades. This Florentine family ran a highly successful business and bank, led a city-state, occupied the Vatican and married into some of the most powerful families in Europe. It also inspired many of the greatest Renaissance artists and supported some of the greatest thinkers and pioneers of the age. The family and the region benefited greatly as returning crusaders brought with them art, literature, music, astronomy and revolutionary thought. The Medici family were the primary catalyst, launching Europe from the Dark Ages to the Renaissance.
List of Crusades • First Crusade 1095-1099 • Siege of Jerusalem • Crusade of 1101 • Second Crusade 1147–1149 • Third Crusade 1187–1192 • Fourth Crusade 1202–1204 • Albigensian Crusade • Children's Crusade 1212 • Fifth Crusade 1217–1221 • Sixth Crusade 1228–1229 • Seventh Crusade 1248–1254 • Eighth Crusade 1270 • Ninth Crusade 1271–1272 • Northern Crusades (Baltic and Germany) • Other crusades • Crusade against the Tatars • Crusades in the Balkans • Aragonese Crusade • Alexandrian Crusade • Hussite Crusade • Swedish Crusades
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Which events served as a catalyst from the Dark Ages to the Ages of Modernity? Do Not Recopy! • Under the rules of feudalism, it is the responsibility of the • nobility of the land to protect the lives and well-being of the • peasants within their domain. • Some of the failures of this responsibility cast significant doubt into the minds of the masses: • The failure of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the established nobility of the Byzantine Empire to stop the advance of the invading Islamic armies. • The faith of the masses evaporated as even the pious members of the Church were falling victim to the deadly plague. • The Holy Crusades that attempted to reestablish Christian control over the Holy Lands.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation So, What Changed? In Art From art focused solely on religious topics to art focused on realism In Literature From Latin religious texts to 'vernacular' translations of the Bible and new works of fiction. In Religion From absolute control of the Pope to the rise of Protestantism and the Anglican Church In Science The Holy Bible was no longer the only source of absolute truth. Observation needed to be explained ~ scientifically
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 2. The Reformation Indulgences and The Abuse of Indulgences-in Roman Catholic theology, is the full or partial remission of temporal punishment due for sins which have already been forgiven. The indulgence is granted by the church after the sinner has confessed and received absolution.. After the Protestant Reformation, cash no longer became an acceptable way to obtain an indulgence. The practice of paying for indulgences was born out of the Plague when Christians and their priests were dying too quickly and in too great of numbers for priests to perform the Last Rights or hear confessions of the dead and dying.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 2. The Reformation Purgatory - (Lat., "purgare", to make clean, to purify) in accordance with Catholic teaching is a place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 2. The Reformation The Reformation began on October 31, 1517, when German monk Saint Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the Castle Church door in Wittenberg, Germany Luther made a translation of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into German. Soon all the countries of Europe followed his example by translating the Scriptures into their languages. For the first time in history, the recently invented printing press made the Word of God available to all the people. When he was commanded to appear before Emperor Charles V to answer for his writings, Saint Martin gave this fearless reply: "I cannot submit my faith either to the Pope or to the Councils, because it is clear as day that they have frequently erred and contradicted each other. Unless therefore, I am convinced by the testimony of Scripture ... I cannot and will not retract ... Here I stand, I can do no other. So help me God, Amen."
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 2. The Reformation Pardoned believers came back to Wittenberg and sinned it up. When Luther asked why they didn't come to confession, they showed him their piece of paper and laughed it off!This did not sit well with Martin and the Theses emerged.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Martin Luther submitted his 95 Theses for local debate in 1517. Little did he know what would happen. Soon he was called before the Diet of Worms and asked to renounce the 41 errors the Catholic Church found in his theses. He refused and the Reformation was officially under way!
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 2. The Reformation In the end, Luther's refusal to allow the Pope and his Council to overrule the Holy Bible lead to the Protestant Reformation and Protestantism's eventual growth to over 400 million people. This Reformation is considerably different from the creation of the Anglican Church, (which we will examine later) although their ability to be created share some obvious similarities. We'll get there later!
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 3. Humanism The only way that Europeans could expect to pull themselves out of the intellectual catastrophe that was the Dark Ages was to attempt to recover, edit, and make available many lost texts, which included, among others, almost all the works of Plato. The crisis of Renaissance humanism came with the trial of Galileo which was centered on the choice between basing the authority of one's beliefs on one's observations, or upon religious teaching. The root of the conflict was the Biblical teaching that "The truth will set you free" which was the heart of the emerging Christian teaching methodology
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 3. Humanism Niccolo Machiavelli Baldassare Castiglione
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 3. Humanism • Niccolo Machiavelli – The Prince - 1532 • The ends justify the means…but not in all cases. If the means is to achieve honour but never in the vain hope to achieve glory. • The three points of his writing may be summed up as follows: • Act boldly • Protect one's own power • Appear unwavering while remaining flexible
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Some Machiavellian Homework Use the following links in order to do the work being assigned. Questions http://quiz.cosmicsoft.net/h49 Supporting Text Found on MyClass Site
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation 3. Humanism Baldassare Castiglione The Book of the Courtier Click Here! The Book of the Courtier was written by Baldassare Castiglione over the course of many years beginning in 1508 and published in 1528 just before he died. Baldassare was inspired to write the Courtier by his experiences as a courtier of the virgin Duchess Elisabetta Gonzaga at the court of Urbino. The Courtier is a dialogue in four books on the subject of what constitutes a perfect courtier, and in book three, a perfect lady.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation By the Way ~ People Wrote in English as Well Jeffrey Chaucer
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation By the Way ~ People Wrote in English as Well Whan that April with his showres sooteThe droughte of March hath perced to the roote,And bathed every veine in swich licour,Of which vertu engendred is the flowr. 1-4)
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Recap Europe Became: - Capitalist in the Economy * Rise of political philosophy - Machiavelli - Classical in its Arts and Literature * Advances in the science of painting * Revival of classical studies * Printing press * Rise of Humanism – Erasmus and More * Reformation – God enters the heart of the individual Luther and Calvin - Scientific in its Approach to Nature * Advances in mining, plumbing and metallurgy * The Great Voyages * Astrology turns into Astronomy – Copernicus * Study of human anatomy * Alchemy turns to Chemistry
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Act in Restraint of Appeals, 1533 – King Henry VIII The Statute in Restraint of Appeals – Ecclesiastical Appeals Act 1532 – (citation 24 Henry VIII. c. 12) was an English parliamentary Act of 1533, considered by many historians to be the key legal foundation of the English Reformation. The act, drafted by Thomas Cromwell on behalf of King Henry VIII of England, forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the King the final legal authority in all such matters in England, Wales, and other English possessions. This was achieved by claiming that England was an Empire and the English crown was an Imperial Crown — Henry's historians claimed that they could trace the linage back to Brutus and the fall of Troy.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Act in Restraint of Appeals, 1533 – King Henry VIII This far-reaching measure made accepting papal authority, or following papal rulings in church, faith or other matters illegal. It was followed a year later by the First Act of Supremacy (1534) which made Henry "the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England called Anglicana Ecclesia, and shall have and enjoy annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm". Those in his realms had to acknowledge this as they were by Acts of Parliament that automatically changed any previous constitutional arrangements. Not to do so was high treason which could lead to trial and execution as happened to Thomas More. The acts providedKing Henry his long-desired divorce from Queen Catherine of Aragon, so that he could marry Anne Boleyn.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Henry VIII is important to us as he is only the second Tudor king and is desperate to have a male heir as he does not believe that his family's position is strong enough to leave in the hands of a female heir. He goes through so many wives in an attempt to find a wife that will bare him a son. Marriages and Children of Henry VIII Catherine of Aragon (married 11 June 1509 annulled 23 May 1533) Anne Boleyn (married 25 January 1533 annulled 1536) beheaded Jane Seymour (married 30 May 1536; died 25 October 1537) Anne of Cleves (married 6 January 1540 annulled 1540) Catherine Howard (married 28 July 1540 annulled 1541) beheaded Catherine Parr (married 12 July 1543; died 5 September 1548) Extra-Marital Relatoinships By Elizabeth Blount By Mary Boleyn By Mary Berkeley
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Rise and Reign of Elizabeth I And You Thought Your Family was Messed Up! Mary (later Bloody Mary btw – not Mary Queen of Scots – different Mary, same time) was the only surviving child from Henry VIII's first marriage to Catherine of Aragon. She becomes a bastard child when her mother is cast out and divorced by her father. She looses the title of Princess and now referred to as Lady Mary. When she turned 18 – her "house" was disbanded by her father, the King and she was sent to live in the house Elizabeth, his daughter from his marriage to Anne Boleyn. After Anne's execution, Mary is brought back into the Royal Family but is not reinstated as a Princess. She remains devoutly Roman Catholic which creates some stress with her Protestant step-siblings. When Henry VIII dies in 1547, his 9 ½ year old son assumes the throne as King Edward VI – he dies at the age of 15. (1553)
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Rise and Reign of Elizabeth I And You Thought Your Family was Messed Up! After her young half-brother dies – Mary becomes the Queen of England at the age of 37. She Marries Prince Phillip of Spain. A few years later, he leaves – promising to return. He becomes King of Spain in his absence and breaks his promise… In Dec 1554 She has a law passed that gives the Bishops of the Church of England the power to burn heretics at the stake. During this time over 300 people are burned alive. Hence the name Bloody Mary…Probably should have been Crispy Mary! Tortured by loneliness and unhappiness, Queen Mary I falls ill and dies on Nov 17 1558. She is succeeded by her half-sister and our heroine Queen Elizabeth I
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Rise and Reign of Elizabeth I And You Thought Your Family was Messed Up! King Henry VIII had moved heaven and earth (almost literally) in order to marry Elizabeth's mother – Anne Boleyn. He split with the Roman Catholic Church so that his 24 year marriage to Catherine of Aragon could be annulled. The new Church of England permits Henry to marry Anne – then declares their marriage invalid after Elizabeth, but no boys are born. Anne is charged with adultery (with her brother…) and is executed in 1536. Elizabeth is also now considered to be illegitimate. Two weeks later, Henry marries Jane Seymour. She dies giving birth to Herny's long awaited son – Edward. Elizabeth and Edward became close ~ but Mary drifts away.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Rise and Reign of Elizabeth I And You Thought Your Family was Messed Up! Henry then marries Anne of Cleves – but had the marriage annulled as a result of his bride's ugliness. He then marries Anne Boleyn's first cousin, 15 year old featherbrain Katherine Howard – she was beheaded in 1542 as a result of alleged adultery. Katherine Parr becomes Henry's last wife and outlives him. And historians wonder why Elizabeth I never married! She does not become Queen of England as Henry's will clearly outlined the path of royal ascension. King Edward I King – If no heirs, Crown passes to Mary. Queen Mary I Queen – If no heirs, Crown passes to Elizabeth Queen Elizabeth Queen – How could poor know that none of his children would produce heirs? Poor guy.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Rise and Reign of Elizabeth I And You Thought Your Family was Messed Up! During the reign of Bloody Mary, Elizabeth is arrested on orders from the Queen and locked in the Tower of London as a result of a failed assassination attempt on Queen Mary I. Elizabeth always maintained her innocence.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation The Counter-Reformation – The R.C. Church responds Let's face it – you don't want to hear me talk about this anymore! Jot note p55-p64. Do not hand in – be sure to have read and understood the text by the time your unit test comes around.
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Elizabeth I – The Virgin Queen
Unit 1- Renaissance and Reformation Council of Trent 1563 – Pope Paul III