The Renaissance and Reformation Quick Review
Setting the Stage • High Middle ages saw huge growth that came crashing down in the 1400’s • Europe’s population peaked to 75 million in 1300 • Great Famine of 1315-13-27 • Black Death 1348-1351 Lost 40% of Europe’s population • Sought ways to understand this catastrophe • Flagellants (wiped themselves for atonement) • Jewish discrimination • Art reflected the death and pain and suffering of the people • Church was left powerless (60% of clergy was killed) • Labor shortages actually lead to improved wages and a collapse of the Feudal system
Setting the Stage • Peasants improved conditions did not last long. • Nobles reassert their control which led to the JACQUERIE rebellion of 1358 in France. Occurred during the 100 yrs. war • Rebellions also occurred in England and Florence • Young National monarchies were fragile and Dynasty were instable. • Having a male heir and marriages
Setting the Stage • 100yrs War (1337-1453) • Between France and England over the French throne • France with greater population was thought to be the easy victor • English longbow men versus French heavy Calvary • France gained inspiration from JOAN OF ARC • Believed God had called her to break the siege of Orleans • later burned as a witch • By 1453 the tide turned back to England as they held land on the continent in Calais
Setting the Stage • Catholic Church was in the midst of a crises • Since 1307 the papacy lived in exile in France during the BABYLONIAN CAPTIVITY • The “Italian” people forced the mostly French cardinals to elect and Italian the church moved into the GREAT SCHISM (1378-1417) • These rival popes made the European nations choose sides. • Advocates of CONCILIARISM tried to use church councils to solve the crises. • JOHN WYCLIF advocated for a simpler Christianity (Burned at the stake) • His ideas set the stage for the Protestant Reformation
The Origins of the Renaissance • Italy • Location as trade between Eastern and Western Empires. Connections to the Mediterranean allowed it to connect Northern Europe with the Ottoman Empire • Urbanization– Most of Europe had 10% urbanized population while 25% of Italians lived in cities • Meant more civic culture and activities as well as being a magnet for trade and ideas • Social– Nobles were oriented towards gaining wealth and money-making endeavors. Made this part of life and was respected • Political– Italy was not unified it was a collection of small City States so people, goods, and ideas moved freely
The Origins of the Renaissance • Italy • Italy imitated the Greeks and Romans and respected freedom and citizenship • Males however were the only ones that could participate • Male dominated society • Marriages were arranged and were meant to benefit the parents • Often males were 20-30 and females were in their teens • Lead to Prostitution, sexual violence and widows due to age differences • The Labor shortages due to the Black Death also lead to African Slavery (10% of the population in 1400
Renaissance Humanism and Art • Renaissance- Rebirth was coined by JACOB BURCHHARDT (civilization of the Renaissance in Italy 1860) • PETRARCH (1304-1374) the FATHER OF HUMANISM • DESIDERIUS ERASMUS • HUMANISM was fascinated by humans and their potential • Secularism-- Focus on the here and now and less on the after • Education, self-help manuals • Art depicted people with greater significance • Was more to glorify the artist than God
Renaissance Humanism and Art • Classics– Ancient Greek and Rome acted as the moral center of the humanists outlook • POGGIO BRACCIOLINI – Looked for evidence of how the ancients lived • Individualism– Individualism meant focus on education, learning and human affairs should take precedence • Power– Controlling the environment and their surroundings • Geography and music to 3 dimensional painting and business (double book keeping as well as politics • With this moved to an era of colonialism and the Centralization of the NEW MONARCHES as well as Urban Planning
Renaissance Humanism and Art • The movement and ideas were spread much easier through the innovation of the printing press • JOHANN GUTENBERG– movable type in 1450’s and created the GUTENBERG BIBLE • Could be considered the most important technological development in the past 1000 yrs.
Renaissance – For Women • For the most part women’s roles were in the domestic sphere • Most that did have an influence were wives of statesmen who left home for war or trade and left them to take care of the home.
Renaissance – Politics and the New Monarchs • Politics took on new importance in this era • MACHIAVELLI’s the PRINCE • Ambassadors were used to address political affairs instead of religious issues • Italy had a Balance of Power and the PEACE of LODI in 1454 made a lasting peace for 40 yrs. • The NEW MONARCHS reasserted strong dynastic control and centralized power after the tumultuous 14th century
Renaissance – The City States • Florence • Cosimo De’ Medici • Center of Banking and textiles • Milan • Lead by the VISCONTI family • Used CONDOTTIERE effectively • Most closely tied with trading in central Europe but its strategic location made it a target for foreign invasions
Renaissance – The City States • Papal States • Ruled by Papacy • ALEXANDER VI from the Borgia line • Low point for the Catholic church as it was ruled more as a political entity than a church and had ]luxury and art at the forefront. Would lead to the Protestant Reformation • JULIUS II
Portrait of Pope Julius IIby Raphael, 1511-1512 • More concerned with politics than with theology. • The “Warrior Pope.” • Great patron of Renaissance artists, especially Raphael & Michelangelo. • Died in 1513
Pope Leo X with Cardinal Giulio deMedici and Luigi De Rossi by Raphael, 1518-1519 • A Medici Pope. • He went through the Vatican treasury in a year! • His extravagances offended even some cardinals [as well as Martin Luther!]. • Started selling indulgences.
Renaissance – The City States • Venice • Ruled by several merchant families (Oligarchy) • Major trading power of Italy due to its connection to the Byzantine Empire
Review • What was the Peace of Lodi? • How did Art Change during the Renaissance? What was the difference between Northern Art and Italian Art? • How did the Black Death effect Europe and lead to the Renaissance?
Northern Renaissance • Began in Italy but quickly spread north (Italy was the stem of the flower) • Often associated with Christian Humanisms • Added bible and writings of the early church (St. Augustine) • People became critical of the Church’s abuses of power • Didn’t want to split the church but create reform from within its leadership • Leaders in the reform process were Erasmus and Thomas More
Northern Renaissance • Why were people unsatisfied with the Church? • Came from the uncertainties of • The Black Death • The Great Schism • Political breakdown in Europe and emergence of politics taking center stage in the Papal States and the Pope. • Selling indulgences, venerating relics (sale and $) and pilgrimages
Northern Renaissance • Positive aspects • People were looking for a meaningful experience with God • Mysticism – bridge the gap between himself and God • Meditation prayer and acts of devotion • Desiderious Erasmus– Praise of Folly • Intellectual protected by patrons • Laid the Egg that Luther Hatched • Thomas Moore – Utopia • Beheaded in England by Henry VIII for not supporting the Church of England and its split from the Catholic Church • Why did Henry want the split?
Causes of the Protestant Reformation • The Church wanting to recapture its former glory was focused more on artistic patronage and politics than on Religious doctrine • Babylonian Captivity saw abuses by the Church and the popes fear that church councils would limit their power • Simony– Buying and selling church offices • Nepotism – Granting of offices for relatives • Pluralism – Holding multiple high offices • Indulgences – Selling of time out of purgatory
Protestant Reform Movements • Luther’s Question “ How can I be saved”? • Condemned the Church for teaching incorrectly • 95 theses • Three key ideas • SOLA SCRIPTURA– the only authority in Christianity is the Bible • SOLA FIDE– Salvation comes from faith alone • SOLA GRATIA – Salvation comes by a FREE gift of God’s Grace • Printing Press was instrumental in this movement Luther’s writing accounted for ¼ of the books published in Germany during the first 10 years • Diet of Worms – Luther stands in Defiance of the HRE
Protestant Reform Movements • Settle the religious conflict in Germany the PEACE OF AUGSBURG which divided the Empire between Lutheran and Catholic areas to determine individual rulers (relate this to partitioning of Indian and Pakistan) • Charles V abdicates • During his reign he was one of the most powerful rulers in Europe (1519 Spain, the Low Countries, the HRE, parts of Italy and the Spanish Empire in the New World. • Split his holdings between Ferdinand (HRE) and Philip II who took the rest. • Created two Habsburg lines (one Spanish and one Austrian) continual intermarrying for political gain lead to significant genetic problems
Protestant Reform Movements • John Calvin gives the Protestant Reformation a needed boost in 1540 • Calvin was born in France and studied Humanism. First as a Priest and then in legal profession. • Established himself in Switzerland (Geneva) in particular • Justification by faith alone • Two sacraments • PREDESTINATION
Protestant Reform Movements • Other Evangelical Reformers • Ulrich Zwingli • Broke with Luther over Sacraments – God was not in the Bread and the Wine and it was only a symbolic ritual • ANABAPTIST • Church membership was an adult decision so believed in adult baptism • Condemned for the practice of being baptized twice. • Magisterial Reforms (ones brought by political leadership) • Henry the VIII--Act of Supremacy (Head of Catholic Church in England)
Social impact of the Protestant Reformation • Family took more of a central role • Celibacy was abolished • Glorified Marital bonds • Women could be educated and had some rights to divorce • Women were relegated to the domestic sphere by Luther and Calvin • Helped spur education as reading was emphasized and more available texts • Many calendar and events changed away from a strictly religious sense