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Renaissance and Reformation. 1350-1600. Black Death . Renaissance began at end of Black Death Plague in which 1/3 of Europe’s population died. Section 1: Renaissance. Renaissance means “rebirth”

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Black death
Black Death

  • Renaissance began at end of Black Death

    • Plague in which 1/3 of Europe’s population died

Section 1 renaissance
Section 1: Renaissance

  • Renaissance means “rebirth”

  • It was an age of recovery from the disasters of the Middle Ages such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power.

  • Also, there was a high regard for human worth and a realization of what individuals could achieve.

Italian city states
Italian City-states

  • The Renaissance began in Italy.

    • The major cities of influence were Milan, Venice, and Florence.

    • Each of these cities played crucial role in politics.

    • Niccolo Machiavelli’s book The Prince became one of the most influential works on political power.

      • He believed that a ruler should keep his power by whatever means necessary.

  • Renaissance Society

    • During the Middle Ages, society was divided into 3 categories. These categories continued with the Renaissance

      • Nobility: 2 – 3% of the population; held important political posts and were advisers to the king

      • Clergy: church officials

      • Peasants and Townspeople: most of the population were in this classification; urban poverty increased throughout Europe

  • Family and Marriage

    • Parents carefully arranged marriages to strengthen business or family ties

    • A father’s authority over his children was absolute until he died or formally freed them. Therefore, the age of adulthood varied from early teens to the late twenties.

** end of notes**

Section 2 the intellectual and artistic renaissance
Section 2: The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance

  • Italian Renaissance Humanism

    • Emphasis on the individual

    • Studied things like grammar, poetry, philosophy, and history

  • Vernacular Literature

    • Writers began to write in the language spoken in their own regions (vernacular)

    • Dante and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular literature more popular

  • Education

    • The humanist movement had a huge effect on education.

    • Humanists wrote books on education and opened schools.

      • They stressed in importance of history, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music, and physical education.

      • Humanist education was a preparation for life as well as creating great scholars and complete citizens.

  • The Arts

    • Perspective allowed painters to create the illusion of three dimensions

    • Masters of the High Renaissance

      • Leonardo da Vinci

      • Raphael

      • Michelangelo

** end of notes**

Section 3 the protestant reformation
Section 3: The Protestant Reformation

  • Religious reform movement that divided the western Church into Catholic and Protestant groups

  • Desiderius Erasmus criticized the abuses in the Church in his work, The Praise of Folly.

  • Prior to the Reformation, Popes were:

    • more concerned with politics and worldly interests

    • concerned with money and advanced their personal careers and wealth

    • failing to meet the needs of their followers

    • sold indulgences

Martin luther
Martin Luther

  • On October 31, 1517, Luther nailed a list of Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.

  • Thousands of copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany.

Spread of lutheranism
Spread of Lutheranism

  • While in hiding, Luther gained the support of German rulers who established state churches that followed Luther’s teachings.

  • Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.

** end of notes**

Section 4 the spread of protestantism and the catholic response
Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response

  • Division among the Protestants appeared throughout Europe.

  • In Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli pushed for religious reform:

    • Removal of relics and paintings

    • New sermons that replaced Catholic mass

Catholic reformation
Catholic Reformation the reformation in Switzerland.

  • The Catholic Church went through a period of reform that gave it new strength and allowed it to regain what it lost.

    • The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) took a vow of obedience to the Pope and helped spread the Catholic teachings.

    • The Papacy rededicated itself to the people

    • The Council of Trent reaffirmed the Catholic teachings

      • Faith and good works needed for salvation

      • Use of indulgences strengthened

      • Seven sacraments upheld

      • Clerical celibacy affirmed

** end of notes**