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360 degree feedback:facilitation advice for line managers This is an illustrative briefing pack for line managers preparing to run feedback sessions for their teams using TPMG’s orbitPLUS. Clients are invited to customize this for their own briefings. It may include options that as a client you will not be using but are included here for completeness. There are separate files for HR and system managers, which covers progress and management reports and for general briefing for all participants. See also TPMG’s white paper “360 Degree Feedback – Facilitating Feedback ” It is structured in 4 parts: 360 feedback 360 feedback results Interpreting the report Coaching & facilitation
360 feedback Why 360 feedback? • improving performance begins with self-awareness • 360 is a powerful tool in raising an individual’s awareness of their strengths and weaknesses and their impact on others – reinforces strengths – builds self esteem • it prompts questions such as: do I continue doing this, stop doing this, try new ways • it’s the best way to see the individual’s full contribution and their development needs • feedback may be “perceptions” but perceptions matter - they influence how colleagues behave towards the individual, e.g. • if someone is generally seen not to listen and not to act on ideas from colleagues, it is likely that those ideas will dry up or be channelled elsewhere
360 feedback 360 – the benefits • a fuller and more accurate picture of the individual’s performance “in the round” • improved or changed behaviours/performance in the light of the feedback • better communication • increased recognition (by individuals and the organization generally) of the significance of “relationship” skills – moving towards greater trust and openness • contribution to a culture shift (usually prompted by the top team initiating a feedback process for themselves)
360 feedbackPerception matters! • perceptions are real because their consequences are real • we are viewed • not by what we are, but by how people perceive us to be • not by what we say, but by what people hear • not by what we do, but how we appear to do it
360 feedbackTips for giving feedback • Start with the positive: “I really appreciate how you make time to listen to staff concerns” • Be specific - “the way you handled that situation was really helpful” • Focus on behaviour which can be changed: “it would help me if you gave me a one page summary of your reports, with key recommendations and actions” • Offer alternatives: “it might have helped to put X at her ease if you had spoken to her first before the team meeting” • Describe rather than judge or evaluate (“you often appear to get to a conclusion, before I have fully described my proposal” not “you are a poor listener”) • Own the feedback : “It seems to me that ...” is less judgemental about a person than “You are...” and recognise what the feedback says about you
360 feedback results Results: summary chart showing scores at cluster level as chart and table.
360 feedback results Results: top 5 and bottom 5 items for the individual, according to average scores from respondents.
360 feedback results Results: list of significant differences between Self and Line Manager’s perceptions; and list of significant differences between Importance & Performance.
360 feedback results Results: summary chart showing gaps between Importance and Performances at cluster level as chart and table.
360 feedback results Results: comparing the individual’s scores with the range of scores from others in the group.
360 feedback results Results: detailed results at statement level.
360 feedback results Results: detailed results at statement level. Comments for each Competency shown at end of section. May show some merger of comments from small respondent groups.
360 feedback results Results: final comments – grouped by respondent category.
360 feedback results Results: final comments – grouped by respondent category.
360 feedback results Results: List of people invited to give feedback
Interpreting the reportOpening questions • read the advice on the front page • opening questions: • overall: is this a picture of yourself in the round that you recognise? what are you pleased to see? • which specific results indicate that you may have: • particular strengths to build on and use more widely • particular development needs • what concrete examples have been provided in the feedback? what do you make of them? • any surprises that you need to dig into? • how does this picture square with other data that you have about yourself (e.g. from other development programmes)
Interpreting the reportFollow up questions • questions (cont.) • what are the 2 or 3 things you are (most) concerned about? what is the data saying about those? • how do you think you might address them? • what actions will have the most impact on them? • how will that help your capability and performance in the team? • who do you need support from in taking forward these actions? • closing questions • looking a year ahead, say, how would you like to see the pattern of that chart change? how will that help your overall performance? • what are you going to say back to the providers of your feedback to indicate what you have taken from the exercise and what you are going to do about it?
Coaching & facilitation Principles of coaching • aim is always to improve performance • belief that the subject’s potential is greater than current performance • learning is essential to improving performance • in order to learn people need to • be aware • focus attention • a coach is not a teacher – but coaching can combine specialist know-how to help the subject to find own solutions • coaching is essential because new organizational structures and working styles require: • far more trust, sharing of responsibility & delegating of action • far less micro management and face-to-face direction
Coaching skills Helping someone solve their own problem Listening to understand Reflecting Paraphrasing Summarising Solving someone’s problem for them Asking questions that raise awareness Non-Directive Making Suggestions Giving Feedback Guiding Advising Directive Instructing Telling from Myles Downey
Coaching & facilitationYour role as 360 facilitator • meeting to last 1-2 hours • explain your role (e.g. “your Research Assistant to help you get the most value from your feedback”) • introduce and explain the format not the content of the report – 5 minutes • answer any questions about how the report is structured etc. • ask the individual to read it – do not discuss the content until they (like you) have had time to digest it (usually takes 20-30 minutes to read – suggest where possible you sit outside and await their call) • discuss the individual’s conclusions from the report and discuss development plan. • treat the meeting as a coaching session – using your coaching skills
Coaching & facilitation Coaching tips : ask the right questions • open: to open up the discussion • to gather information – “what has pleased you most about this feedback?” • to assess feelings – “what do you feel about trying out that idea?” • to drill down – “what makes you feel it will be difficult?” • clarifying: to review, check understanding • “what was happening in that meeting, what were colleagues doing and saying” • probing: explore in detail • “might you have expected fewer problems coming through from that department, what might explain the increase?” • closed: to direct and close down the discussion • to clarify or confirm – “is it the case that…?” • to gain commitment – “are we agreed then….?”
Coaching & facilitation “What a Star!” – the challenge of the high performers • stars set their own high standards • items that might seem marginally below their high par may be significant to them • stars like and need feedback • any discussion is likely to be focussed and productive, with gains for the individual and colleagues • stars make ideal mentors • likely to be a benefit both to them and those being mentored • stars show the way • they can provide powerful role models and roads to improvement for others
Coaching & facilitation Feedback: avoidance! • Denial: “it’s not my fault” • the questions don’t apply to my role • they don’t work with me enough to know • I am what I am • no time to talk about this now • Attack – the question, the process or the respondents • I don’t get on with these people • must be a mistake here • the questionnaire was too long/short • what will HR think of next? • I’ve been stitched up • Rationalise: explaining the feedback away • I knew this all along • my respondents interpreted this question differently • the reason for this score is... • OK, but there is nothing I can do about it because...
Coaching & facilitation Traps for the coach to avoid - 1 • identifying with or defending the instrument – it is their report • defending the data – it is their data • directing rather than prompting the interpretation of the data • feeling you have to have the answers • telling the subject what to do • undue or premature interruption • feeling you have to fill the silence – people will be thinking
Coaching & facilitationTraps for the coach to avoid -2 • talking in generalities in action planning – focus on specifics e.g. • not “improve delegation skills” but e.g. • “agree with staff clear performance standards for tasks, agree the quality measures and a picture of “what success will look like”; ask staff to summarise what they plan to do, to check for understanding.” • arguing to win or give an answer to every objection • over-use of the “why” question (invokes reasons, justifications and excuses)– use “what” (builds awareness) • not “why do you think they say that” • instead “what is happening in those circumstances – what are they doing/saying, what are you doing/saying? what are they telling you?”
Coaching & facilitation Development options • Role enrichment • Role enlargement • Coaching in the role • Benchmarking • Team assignments • Projects • Role rotation • Transfer • Acting up • Understudy • Coach others • Mentor others • Networking • Community work • Secondments • Self study • Professional development • Role play • Team building • Skills training • Seminars/conferences • Development centres Focus on priorities • the Domino effect – if we improve on those the rest will fall into place • long lists are unlikely to work and, with the Domino effect, should not be needed
Coaching & facilitation Managing the process: the basics • location – private room, not overlooked, away from distractions, mobile phones off etc. • time – usually 1-2 hours • seating arrangement – sit at right angles (not opposite) • put at ease – put them centre stage – their data, their plan, their opportunity • explaining your role – e.g. “research assistant – to help you get the most value from the data and a sounding board to help you reflect on what it means and what you plan to do” • reading the report – let the subject read it in peace before discussing
Coaching & facilitation Facilitator’s checklist - 1 • have I prepared properly? • have I explained the purpose of the feedback? • have I explained my role – what I aim to do and not do? • have I explained the purpose of the session? • have I agreed a timescale? • did I think about how to start the session? • did I ensure the subject took responsibility for their own feedback?
Coaching & facilitation Facilitator’s checklist -2 • how well did I focus on detail rather than generalities? • how well did I focus on priority areas? • did I help subjects in gaining clarification from others? • how well did I handle any conflict? • how well did I deal with feedback avoidance? • how well did I help participants convert needs into action plans and development plans? • did I know when to stop?