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Industrial Revolution. Unit 6 Notes. p. 113 - 118 industrialism textiles urbanization division of labor (p.125) laissez-faire capitalism* socialism Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels* Communist Manifesto* proletariat* bourgeoisie* labor (trade) unions . p. 121 - 125 cotton gin

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unit 6 key terms the industrial revolution
p. 113 - 118




division of labor (p.125)

laissez-faire capitalism*


Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels*

Communist Manifesto*



labor (trade) unions

p. 121 - 125

cotton gin

flying shuttle

spinning jenny

water frame

spinning mule*

power loom

cottage industry (p.114)

factory system (p.115)

James Watt

steam engine

interchangeable parts

mass production

Unit 6 Key Terms – The Industrial Revolution
unit 6 key terms
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • industrialism – an economic system based on the use of machines rather than on animal or human power
  • textiles – goods made of woven cloth
  • urbanization– the movement of people to the cities
  • division of labor – assigning workers specific tasks
unit 6 key terms1
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • laissez-faire capitalism – an economic system where all factors of production are privately owned and there is no government interference
  • socialism – belief that the government should provide for the welfare of the people and plan the economy
  • Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels – wrote The Communist Manifesto and proposed a radical form of socialism called communism
unit 6 key terms2
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • Communist Manifesto – writing of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that proposed a radical socialism, stating that society was divided into warring classes
  • proletariat – according to Karl Marx, these were the poor workers or the “have nots”
  • bourgeoisie – according to Karl Marx, these were the wealthy factory owners or the “haves”
  • labor unions – groups of workers that negotiated for better wages, better working conditions and shorter hours
unit 6 key terms3
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • cotton gin – machine invented by Eli Whitney that dramatically increased cotton production by mechanically removing seeds from cotton
  • flying shuttle – invention of John Kay’s that doubled the amount of weaving a worker could do in one day using hand power
  • spinning jenny – invention by James Hargreaves allowed one spinner to spin 8 threads at a time using hand power
unit 6 key terms4
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • water frame – invented by Richard Arkwright, it allowed machines to be powered by water
  • spinning mule – invented by Samuel Crompton, this was the combination of the water frame and the spinning jenny
  • power loom – invented by Edmund Cartwright in 1787, this was a water powered weaving machine
  • cottage industry – manufacturing that people did at home
unit 6 key terms5
Unit 6 Key Terms
  • James Watt – inventor of the steam engine
  • steam engine – initially used to power boats and trains, this invention allowed for factories to be built anywhere because it did not require water power
  • interchangeable parts – machine made parts that are exactly alike (also invented by Eli Whitney)
  • mass production – the manufacture of huge quantities of identical products at cheap prices
  • factory system – method of production that brought machines and workers together in one place
word splash industry
Word Splash: Industry
  • What do you think of when you hear the word industry? You have 5 minutes to write down as many things as you can about the word industry.
upcoming events
Upcoming Events
  • Homework – workbook p. 119 1-4 & p. 126-127 1-6 – Thurs. Nov. 14
  • Unit 6 Key Terms Quiz – Tuesday Nov. 19
  • Unit 6 Test – Wednesday Nov. 20
  • Midterm Review Test (Units 1-6) – Tuesday Nov. 26
agricultural revolution
Agricultural Revolution
  • 3 things led to increased agricultural production:
    • enclosure movement
    • crop rotation
    • advanced agricultural technology
  • increased agricultural production led to increased population and forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to the cities
  • improvements in agriculture put more money in the pockets of landowners and allowed for more investment in other businesses
where did the industrial revolution begin
Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
  • it began in Great Britain following the Agricultural Revolution
  • it began in the textile industry
  • did not have one single founder or inventor
  • it grew from the innovations and inventions of many people
why did it begin in great britain
Why did it begin in Great Britain?
  • Great Britain had all the factors of production needed for industrialization:
    • natural resources
    • rivers and harbors
    • experienced entrepreneurs
    • growing population
    • political stability
    • increasing world trade
    • economic prosperity and progress
where did the industrial revolution spread
Where did the Industrial Revolution spread?
  • to the United States
    • Samuel Slater and the “Rhode Island plan”
    • Lowell, Massachusetts – the “Lowell method”
  • continental Europe
    • Belgium was the first after England in 1799
    • Germany in 1835 – would later use industry for military production
    • France did not industrialize right away but remained agricultural
  • Japan
    • industrialized itself during the Meiji Era in an effort to remain isolated
  • urbanization is the movement of people to the cities
  • people moved to the cities to work in factories because they could earn more there than on a farm
  • life in the city
    • unregulated
    • poor housing
    • inadequate police protection
    • unsanitary
  • working conditions in the factories
    • long hours (14 hours a day, six days a week)
    • dangerous and unhealthy, often resulting in injury

What is the one piece of technology you cannot imagine life without? Why is it so important to you?


Workbook p. 119 1-4 and p. 126-127 1-6

capitalism vs socialism
Capitalism vs. Socialism
  • laissez-faire capitalism
    • all factors of production are privately owned
    • government does not interfere in business
    • based on laws of competition, supply and demand, self-interest
  • socialism
    • belief that the government should provide for the needs of the masses
    • government should plan the economy in order to promote equality and end poverty
    • promised to distribute wealth according to need
flying shuttle
Flying Shuttle
  • invented by John Kay in 1733
  • doubled the amount of weaving a worker could do in one day
spinning jenny
Spinning Jenny
  • invented by James Hargreaves in 1764
  • allowed one spinner to spin eight threads at a time
water frame
Water Frame
  • invented by Richard Arkwright in 1768
  • changed machines from hand-powered to water-powered
spinning mule
Spinning Mule
  • invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton
  • combination of the spinning jenny and the water frame
  • spinning thread was now water powered
  • produced a stronger product
power loom
Power Loom
  • invented in 1787 by Edmund Cartwright
  • powered by water
  • wove thread into cloth as fast as spinning machines could produce it
cotton gin
Cotton Gin
  • invented by Eli Whitney in 1793
  • machine removed seeds from cotton and dramatically increased cotton production
  • also led to massive increases in the slave population in the south
steam engine
Steam Engine
  • invented/improved by James Watt in 1769
  • replaced water power with steam power, allowing factories to be built anywhere (not just near rivers)
  • engines were powered by coal
rise of mass production
Rise of Mass Production
  • machines increased the output of goods in two ways:
    • interchangeable parts – machine made parts that were exactly alike
    • division of labor – each worker was assigned a specific task as a product moves down a conveyor belt from worker to worker – the assembly line
electricity and industry
Electricity and Industry
  • telegraph – Samuel Morse
  • telephone – Alexander Graham Bell
  • radio – Guglielmo Marconi
  • light bulb – Thomas Edison
impact of industrialism
Impact of Industrialism
  • growth of cities – urbanization
  • rise of capitalism – free enterprise, the idea that people make money for themselves
  • new business models – partnerships, corporations
  • rise of the working class – people made more money in the factories than they did down on the farm
  • rise of trade unions – workers organizing together to improve wages, working conditions
  • development of socialism – the idea that the government, not individuals, should own and control the means of production
think about this
Think about this…
  • What do you think were some of the “side effects” of using a coal powered steam engine?
    • increased pollution
    • more factories
    • more jobs in mining
    • more transportation (steamships, locomotives led to improved roads, more railroads, more canals)
the communist manifesto
The Communist Manifesto
  • written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
  • claimed society was divided into warring classes
    • bourgeoisie – the owners or “haves”
    • proletariat – the workers or “have nots”
  • they claimed that workers were abused by the owners
  • advocated a radically socialist society ruled by the workers where all wealth would be shared
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • workers did not rise up in revolt the way Marx and Engels predicted
  • workers did form labor unions to deal with problems in the workforce
    • negotiated for better wages and working hours and better working conditions
    • threatened strikes and boycotts if demands were not met
  • by 1830, the British government began regulating certain businesses and reforms took place
  • even with reforms, there was a growing gap between rich and poor