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Industrial Revolution

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  1. Industrial Revolution Chapter 25

  2. Advancements and Inventions Chapter 25 Section 1

  3. Industrial Revolution • Began in England in the mid 1700’s • Eventually spread throughout the world • Why England?

  4. Why England? • Perfect for Industrialization -process of developing machine production of goods • Had a large population • Had natural resources • Had an expanding economy

  5. New Methods of Agriculture • Enclosures- large fenced in fields owned by wealthy land-owners • Landowners tried new agricultural methods • Small farmers were pushed out of farming and moved to cities

  6. New Methods of Farming • 1701 JethroTull • Scattering seed across the ground was wasteful • Invented the seed drill • Sewed seeds in rows and at specific depths

  7. New Methods of Farming • Crop Rotation- improved upon three-field system • Planting certain crops in certain fields one after the other to enhance soil For Example: Wheat would exhaust soil. Therefore, after harvesting a wheat field a root crop such as turnips would be grown there to restore the nutrients

  8. New Methods in Livestock • Robert Bakewell • Only allowed his best sheep to breed • Increased his mutton (sheep meat) output Between 1700 and 1786 the average weight of lambs climbed from 18 to 50 pounds

  9. Machine Activity

  10. New Inventions • 1733- John Kay’s Flying Shuttle -a boat-shaped piece of wood to which yarn was attached -doubled the work a weaver could do in a day

  11. New Inventions • 1764- James Hargreaves’s Spinning Jenny -allowed one worker to work eight threads at a time

  12. New Inventions • 1787- Samuel Crompton’s Spinning Mule -run by waterpower produced a more fine, consistent, and stronger thread than other machines

  13. New Inventions • 1793- Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin -Removed the seeds from the cotton 1790- 1.5 million pounds of cotton produced 1810- 85 million pounds of cotton produced

  14. Factories • These new machines were bulky and not cheap by any means • Wealthy textile merchants set these machines up in large buildings called factories

  15. Improvements in Transportation On Page 721 and 722, in your opinion, what is the most significant improvement in transportation and why? Steam Engine Stephenson’s Rocket Steam-Driven Locomotive Turnpikes “Macadam Roads” Liverpool-Manchester Railway

  16. Railroad System • Cheap way to transport goods • Created hundreds of new jobs • Boosted agricultural and fishing industries • Made traveling easier and lured people into taking city jobs

  17. Living and Working Conditions Chapter 25 Section 2

  18. Industrialization = Urbanization • Urbanization- city building and the movement of people to cities • Factories and Manufacturing are in a central location

  19. Living Conditions • As England’s cities grew, they had no development plans, sanitary codes, or building codes -lacked adequate housing -lacked police protection -lacked education centers -no drains in unpaved streets Cities were Crummy!!! (SLUMS)

  20. Living Conditions • Whole families lived in one-bedroom shelters that were dark and dirty • Sickness and disease was widespread 1842- Life expectancy of working class in city was 17 while life expectancy of rural area was 34

  21. The Middle Class • Factory Owners, Merchants, and Bankers became wealthier than landowners • Upper- Doctors, Lawyers, and Factory Managers • Lower- Factory Overseers and Skilled Workers

  22. The Working Class • Factory and Mill Workers • Saw little improvement in their working conditions or livelihood • Some were even replaced by machines • Luddites- attacked factories in 1811

  23. Working Conditions • Average worker worked 14 hour days • Worked 6 days a week • Same thing over and over day after day • No government programs to provide aid if “you get hurt and miss work”

  24. Child Labor • Women and Children were the cheapest source of labor • Favored by factory owners • Worked to help family make ends meat

  25. William Cooper…A Testimony 5 A.M. Work Began 12 Noon 40 Minute Break 6 P.M. Ate while working 9 P.M. 16 Hour Shift done *Children were often whipped during the afternoon to ensure they stayed awake and kept working*

  26. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire March 25, 1911 in New York City

  27. After visiting Manchester in 1835, Alex de Tocqueville wrote: “From this filthy sewer pure gold flows.”

  28. Industrial Revolution Positive or Negative?

  29. Industrialization Spreads Chapter 25 Section 3

  30. Stock- certain rights of ownership sold to support a large business Corporation- a business owned by stock holders who share profits

  31. John D. Rockefeller • Standard Oil • Large Corporation in late 1800’s • First Billionaire

  32. Rockefeller Center

  33. Andrew Carnegie • Carnegie Steel Company • Large Corporation in late 1800’s • Sold Company in 1901 to J.P. Morgan for 480 Million Dollars

  34. Carnegie Hall

  35. Reforming the Industrial World Chapter 25 Section 4

  36. Laissez Faire • “let people do as they please.” • Favors a free market unregulated by government • Stemmed from ideas of the Enlightenment

  37. Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations (1776) 3 Natural Laws of Economics: 1. The law of self interest -People work for their own good 2. The law of competition -Competition forces people to better their product 3. The law of supply and demand -Goods at lowest price to meet demands of market

  38. Capitalism • Economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make profit

  39. Socialism • Factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all • Government should regulate factories, mines, railroads, and other key industries

  40. Karl Marx Along with Fredrick Engels • Wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) • Argued human society has always been divided into “haves” and the “have-nots” • The Industrial Revolution has only enriched the haves and impoverished the have-nots