Primary Sources • A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. • Examples Include : diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records and artefacts.
Secondary Sources • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. • Examples of secondary sources include : • textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias
Source evaluation • When evaluating primary or secondary sources, the following questions might be asked to help ascertain the nature and value of material being considered: • How does the author know these details (names, dates, times)? Was the author present at the event or soon on the scene? • Where does this information come from—personal experience, eyewitness accounts, or reports written by others? • Are the author's conclusions based on a single piece of evidence, or have many sources been taken into account
Confucius : Believed that if people developed moral virtue and goodness then they should govern themselves, He tried to help ancient China build a just and stable society using common sense. • Taoism : (founder Laozi) people should follow the way of the Tao by living simple lives in harmony with nature. • Buddhism : Respect for other property and other life. Most widely practiced religion in China.
Qin Shi Huangdi, First Chinese Emperor • In 210 BC he declared himself the first emperor of China and named himself Shi Huangdi (meaning First Emperor). The Emperor standardized Chinese writing, law, currency, weights and measures. He built a system of roads, and massive fortifications and palaces. Shi Huangdi (259-210 B.C.) was a cruel ruler who readily killed or banished those who opposed him or his ideas. He is notorious for burning virtually all the books that remained from previous regimes. The Qin dynasty ended soon after his death, but a unified China remained for over 2,000 years. China's name is derived from his short but seminal dynasty, Qin (pronounced Chin).
The Great Wall of China The Great Wall of China was built over 2,000 years ago, and began by Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China during the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty (221 B.C - 206 B.C.). The Great Wall is one of the largest building construction projects ever completed. It is constructed of masonry, rocks and packed-earth. It was over 5,000 km long. It was up to 7.5 meters tall
Geography : • The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity.
There are 3 types of Geography • Physical (what the land etc LOOKS like – rivers, mountains etc) • Human (human impact - Population etc) • Environmental (how humans etc AFFECT the world – it’s the bridge between the others)
On the map horizontal lines are lines of latitudewhich run parallel to each other and.... vertical lines are lines of Longitude which run from North to South Pole Equator The X axis is the equator Prime Meridian and the Y axis which runs through Greenwich, England is the Prime Meridian.
The South Pole is 90º south of the equator • The North Pole is 90º north of the equator • The 0º and 180º divide the world into Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
Glossary • Time zone : A geographic region within which the same standard time is used.
Label the countries a - k k h i j A g e f B d c
What is a rainforest? • A Rainforest can be described as a tall, dense jungle. • The reason it is called a "rain" forest is because of the high amount of rainfall it gets per year. • The climate of a rain forest is very hot and humid so the animals and plants that exist there must learn to adapt to this climate.
Why are they important? • These incredible places cover only 6 % of the Earth's surface but yet they contain MORE THAN 1/2 of the world's plant and animal species! • As many as 30 million species of plants and animals live in tropical rainforests. • At least two-thirds of the world's plant species, including many exotic and beautiful flowers grow in the rainforests.
Why are they important? • Rainforests are the source of many items that we all use in our own homes! • We eat several foods from the rainforest and many medicines are made from ingredients found only in these areas. • chocolate • sugar • cinnamon • rubber • medicine • pineapples
Rainforest layers Emergent layer, trees can be 200 feet high. Most trees are broad-leaved, hardwood evergreens. Sunlight is plentiful up here. Animals found are eagles, monkeys, bats and butterflies. Canopy layer forms a roof over the two remaining layers. Most trees have smooth, oval leaves that come to a point. It forms a very dense layer. Food is abundant for animals including snakes, toucans and tree frogs Little sunshine reaches here so the plants have to grow larger leaves to reach the sunlight. The plants in this area seldom grow to 12 feet. Many animals live here including jaguars, red-eyed tree frogs and leopards and many insects. It's very dark here and so no plants grow here, Things begin to decay very quickly. A leaf that might take one year to decompose in a regular climate will disappear in 6 weeks. Giant anteaters live in this layer.
A delicate ecosystem • Rainfall is absorbed by the trees and pulled up to the canopy where it evaporates into the air. • Trees and plants receive most of their nutrients from decaying matter (fallen leaves and organic debris). • Plants and trees hold down the topsoil and keep it from washing away in heavy rains. • When the land is cleared and crops are planted, the soil doesn't stay fertile for long without the nutrients from the decaying matter. • Once the foliage is removed, heavy rains wash away the topsoil.
Forest PeopleForest people lose their homes, their culture, and sometimes their lives. Their knowledge of the forest is lost Last SongbirdsSongbirds, which help farmers in the U.S. by eating insects, can no longer winter in tropical forests. Changed ClimateBurning huge areas of rainforest releases carbon, causing changes in wind currents and rainfall around the world Undiscovered MedicinesPlants that might provide new medicines and products become extinct before they can be studied. ExtinctionThousands of species of rainforest animals and plants are lost forever
Reasons for cutting down the rainforest • wood extraction : The exportation of wood to the developed countries brings considerably large amount of revenues for countries such as Brazil. Intensive cutting can lead to zero chance of recovery. • cattle ranching : Farmers clear much of the tropical rainforest to make way for pastures for their cattle to ranch on. Since nutrients found in the soil are not renewed, they easily run out. This would then cause farmers to cut down more forest for more pastures. • Mining : miners clear the land of vegetation to dig for minerals and coal. • Heating and cooking : wood or charcoal used as a fuel
Specifically, ecotourism possesses the following characteristics: • Conscientious, low-impact visitor behavior • Sensitivity towards, and appreciation of, local cultures and biodiversity • Support for local conservation efforts • Sustainable benefits to local communities • Local participation in decision-making • Educational components for both the traveler and local communities
Primary Concerns of Ecotourism: • environmental concerns include the impact that large numbers of tourists have on the flora and fauna of an area. • Economic concerns relate to impacts of tourism on the local economy. One important economic challenge is to develop tourism which will pay for nature conservation and increase the value of undisturbed natural areas. • and social concerns are the impact tourism has on local people.
Sustainable Tourism • Encourages balanced travel and tourism and heightened respect for people and their environment through development of sustainable infrastructures (energy, water, waste, and transportation).
Oil: New Zealand has basins along its coastlines which are potential sources of petroleum, although the Taranaki basin has been the only source utilised to date. Most oil reserves imported. • Coal: Deposits exist nationwide, with primary mining operations occurring at Westport, Greymouth and Waikato. • Hydroelectricity: Hydro power generates around 44% of the country's energy. As it relies heavily on sufficient rainfall and adequate water levels in the hydro storage lakes, power crises can result from times of low rainfall and high demand. • Geothermal: Systems are located nationwide, but high temperature geothermal fields exist in the Taupo region on the North Island's Central Plateau and Ngawha, in Northland.
What about the environmental impacts of energy use ? The production and use of New Zealand energy has always had an environmental impact. For New Zealand, the consequences have been reduced air quality from home wood burners and vehicles, flooded land from the installation of hydroelectricity stations, and wasted heat from thermal power stations.
What alternative energy sources are available? • For over 100 years, the world has relied on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas to meet their energy needs. The burning of fossil fuels produces carbon dioxide and other gases which accumulate in the Earth's atmosphere. These gases are causing the earths temperature to rise.
Wind Power: There are currently six wind farms in New Zealand, as well as a number of proposals under consideration. Wind turbines generate enough sustainable electricity to provide power to 75,000 households. The main drawbacks in the use of this renewable energy resource are the limited amount of power that can be produced, the cost of building and maintenance, and the noise heard by those living near wind farms. • Solar Power:. Solar power is a clean method of energy production requiring solar panels which simply convert sunlight into energy suitable for human uses. The solar panels themselves, though, must be maintained regularly and have only a 40% efficiency rate. • Nuclear Power: However, nuclear power has become an essential global energy source, supplying around one fifth of the world's electricity.
The 1981 Springbok rugby tour For 56 days in July, August and September 1981, New Zealanders were divided against each other in the largest civil disturbance seen in NZ. More than 150,000 people took part in over 200 demonstrations in 28 centres, and 1500 were charged with offences stemming from these protests. This was caused by the 1981 Springbok Tour.
RUGBY HISTORY The first official series, a visit by South Africa in 1921, ended in a tie when the deciding test at Wellington’s Athletic Park was drawn 0–0. In 1928 the All Blacks toured South Africa, and over the course of three months they played 22 matches, winning 16. The test series was tied 2–2, and a great rivalry was born. Why should a sporting event be the source of civil unrest? What these statistics and results fail to reveal is that until 1992 the racial policies of South Africa meant that teams were selected on the basis of race.
No Maori’s No tour The policy of apartheid created obvious problems for New Zealand rugby, given the prominence of Māori in the sport. Touring South Africa with its entrenched segregation was also problematic. The New Zealand Rugby Football Union (NZRFU) chose not to select Māori for tours to South Africa until 1970 Before the All Blacks toured the republic in 1960 there were calls of ‘No Maoris – No Tour’, and 150,000 New Zealanders signed a petition against sending a race-based team, but the tour went ahead regardless. Prime Minister Keith Holyoake’s statement that ‘in this country we are one people’ was translated into practice when a proposed 1967 tour to South Africa was cancelled.
SPORTING BOYCOTT In 1968 the United Nations called for a sporting boycott as one way of putting pressure on the South African government. As rugby and cricket were the two main sports for white South Africans, the spotlight was bound to fall on New Zealand. When the All Blacks toured in 1970 they sent a multiracial team, not as a result of international pressure softening South African resolve, but because the South African government allowed Māori to travel as ‘honorary whites’.
Protest March 1970 For some this was the last straw. Those opposed to contact with South Africa attacked the NZRFU for allowing Māori players to be demeaned, and they argued that by continuing contact, New Zealand was condoning apartheid. Moreover, by allowing Māori players to be treated in this way, we were allowing South African racial attitudes to infect our own society. Others, including many players, stressed that sport and politics should remain separate. Some, perhaps naively, argued that rugby contact with a multiracial country like New Zealand could promote change for the better in South Africa.
1973 Springbok Tour Keeping sport and politics separate was becoming increasingly difficult. In July 1969 HART (Halt All Racist Tours) was formed. In April 1973, faced with what he predicted would be the ‘greatest eruption of violence this country has ever known’, Prime Minister Kirk announced his government’s decision to cancel the tour.
1976 TOUR AND OLYMPIC BOYCOTT The All Blacks accepted an invitation to tour South Africa in 1976 – a time when world attention was firmly fixed on the republic because of the Soweto riots. Hundreds were killed as the authorities ruthlessly suppressed protests. An All Blacks’ tour under such conditions was not only intolerable to many New Zealanders but also attracted international condemnation. Black African nations boycotted the 1976 Montreal Olympics in protest, firmly putting sports and politics back onto the same stage. New Zealand’s international reputation had been damaged
Commonwealth Heads of State meeting in 1977 discussed the South African question and adopted the Gleneagles Agreement, promising to ‘discourage’ contact and competition between their sportsmen and sporting organisations, teams or individuals from South Africa. Despite Gleneagles, Robert Muldoon made it clear that the government would not allow political interference in sport in any form. The NZRFU took this as a green light, and in September 1980 invited the South Africans to tour the following year
1981: a divided New Zealand The Springbok rugby tour to New Zealand was seen by some as endorsement of South Africa's separatist government. When the New Zealand Rugby Football Union and the NZ government ignored calls to cancel the tour, the NZ anti-apartheid movement planned peaceful protest marches to attempt to sway the government's decision.
1981: a divided New Zealand The tour supporters were determined that the first Springbok visit to New Zealand since 1965 would not be spoiled. The anti-tour movement was equally determined to show its opposition to it. the tour was seen as a clash between the ‘old and the new New Zealand’, which revealed itself in five main ways: the struggle between baby boomers and war veterans city versus country men versus women black versus white ‘Britain of the south’ versus independent Pacific nation The tour’s greatest impact on New Zealand society was to stimulate debate about racism and the place of Māori in New Zealand.
Impact in South Africa In Hamilton the protesters occupying the pitch had chanted, ‘The whole world is watching’. The same applied to New Zealand as a nation. Some believed the tour was an opportunity to address the issue of racism in New Zealand while showing solidarity with the oppressed black majority in South Africa. The 1981 tour was part of a long process that led to this significant change in South Africa, and in this respect, it represented New Zealand's contribution towards a major international event in the closing decades of the 20th century. The anti-apartheid movement in South Africa was buoyed by events in New Zealand. Nelson Mandela recalled that when he was in his prison cell on Robben Island and heard that the game in Hamilton had been cancelled, it was as ‘if the sun had come out’
IMPACT It was a factor in a growing consciousness about race/ethnicity as a matter of culture in New Zealand..New Zealand, it's a better place today than it was 30 years ago in terms of recognizing and respecting the diversity of the country and how that all has contributed to the positive aspects of New Zealand culture, certainly including rugby.