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Urinary System Powerpoints. Period 2. Kidneys. Joe Thomas, Casey Coleman. Kidneys. Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. The waste and extra water become urine .

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Joe Thomas, Casey Coleman

  • Your kidneys are bean-shaped organs, each about the size of your fist. They are located near the middle of your back, just below the rib cage. The waste and extra water become urine.
  • Each kidney is about 11 cm long 5 cm wide and 3 cm thick and weighs 130 grams.
  • The filtration occurs in nephrons, every kidney has about 1 million nephrons.
  • The driving force of the filtration is blood pressure.
  • The 4 basic components are renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henle, and distal convoluted tubule.
for more info
For more info.
  • See chapter 26


Courtney and Jenny

  • Notch on the inner border of the kidney where the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter connect with the kidney
    • Nerves and renal artery enter
    • renal vein and ureter exit
    • Opens into renal sinus
      • Cavity filled with tissue
      • Structures that enter and leave kidney pass through
  • Renal artery
    • Carries all blood from body into the kidneys
  • Nerves
    • Sympathetic neurons regulate renal blood flow and filtrate formation
    • Osmoreceptor cells detect changes in osmolality and stimulate ADH secreting neurons
      • Regulates osmolality
  • Renal Vein
    • Takes filtered blood away from kidney and to the heart through inferior vena cava
  • Ureter
    • Carries urine (waste) from kidney to the urinary bladder
  • Function: Tube that carries urine from kidney to the bladder
  • Ureteral stones (concentrated materials that form into solid crystals in the urine)
    • Kidney stone that’s left kidney and now in ureter
  • Urinary tract cancer
    • Cancer cells found in tissues lining in ureter
  • Structure: Originates from base of kidney and terminates in the base of the bladder
    • Each kidney has one ureter measuring from 28-34 cm long (right’s slightly longer than left)
  • Urine is transported outside the body through this opening inferiorly and anteriorly.
  • It is a triangular area of wall between the 2 ureters posteriorly; the anterior urethra is called the trigone.
  • In females is id 1.5 inches long and only part of the urinary system
  • In males it is much longer- 8 inches and part of both the urinary and reproductive systems.
disorders of the urethra
Disorders of the Urethra
  • Hypospadias- urethra opens on the under surface of the penis instead of at the end (in males only-obviously)
  • Urethritis- inflammation of mucous membrane and glands of uretha
  • “Straddle” injuries- ruptured urethra
glomerular filtration

Glomerular Filtration

Andrew and Laura

  • First step towards urine formation
      • Cleans out plasma
      • Blood plasma spills out of glomerular capsule
    • Blood comes from kidneys via renal artery  smaller arteries  afferent arteriole  Glomerulus  Plasma spills out  Glomerular capsule
    • Made of:
      • Electrolytes
      • Nutrients (ex: Monomers)
      • Wastes
      • Small hormones
      • Water
    • Can’t fit through:
      • Cells
      • Plasma
tubular reabsorbtion



what you need to know
  • Occurs when the nephron specifically returns water and some filtered molecules to the blood
  • The filtered molecules leave the bowman capsule and go through PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT, collecting ducts putting the molecules into the interstitial fluid then into the bloodstream
more stuff to know
  • Removes toxins from blood
  • Without proper tubular reabsorption the body would become dehydrated and deficient
urine concentration

Urine Concentration

By: Max and Oates

  • Can be diluted or very concentrated
    • Concentration and volume are regulated by mechanisms that maintain the extra cellular fluid osmolality and volume within narrow limits.
    • If water must be conserved to maintain homeostasis, water is reabsorbed from the filtrate as it passes through the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts.
      • This results in a small volume of very concentrated urine.
hormonal mechanisms
Hormonal Mechanisms
  • Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone hormone
    • renin is an enzyme secreted
    • If secretion decreases blood pressure increases
  • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Without it makes tubules and collecting ducts impermeable
    • If not enough produced 19% of filtrate becomes part of the urine
      • Called diabetes insipidis
      • Too much is diabetes mellitus
diseases disorders
  • Glomerulonephritis
  • Acute Glomerulonephritis
  • Chronic Glomerulonephritis
  • Pyelonephritis
  • Renal Failure
  • Acute Renal Failure
  • Chronic Renal Failure
  • Urinary Bladder Cancer
  • Kidney stones
  • Cystitis
  • Nephrongenic Diabetes Insipidus
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease
urinary bladder libby and brittany
Urinary BladderLibby and Brittany
  • Temporary reservoir for urine; hollow, muscular container
  • Location: pelvic cavity just posterior to the symphysis pubis
    • Males: anterior to the rectum; Females: anterior to the uterus
  • Volume increases and decreases depending on amount of urine
    • Max volume is 1 L (about 1 quart)
    • Uncomfortable feeling at 500 mL
  • Wall is thicker than wall of ureter
    • Contraction of smooth muscle forces urine out
tubular secretion

Tubular Secretion

By Justin and Ben

all you need to know
All You Need to Know
  • The movement of non-filtered substances, toxic by-products of metabolism and drugs or molecules not normallly produced by the body, from the blood into the filtrate
  • The main types are active and passive transport
    • Passive example– Ridding the body of ammonia because it is toxic
    • Active– para-aminohippuric acid is forced out of the body because it is not being used