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PEBBLES, SAND, AND SILT. BACKGROUND. Observing rocks and beginning to sort them into groups are the initial steps for students to take in the role of geologists. Observing is a fundamental process in geology. Summative Assessment. Investigation 1: First Rocks. Three Rocks

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background
BACKGROUND
  • Observing rocks and beginning to sort them into groups are the initial steps for students to take in the role of geologists.
  • Observing is a fundamental process in geology.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

summative assessment
Summative Assessment

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

investigation 1 first rocks

Investigation 1: First Rocks

Three Rocks

Washing Three Rocks

First Sorting

Sorting Games

Start a Rock Collection

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 three rocks
Part 1: Three Rocks
  • Focus questions

How are rocks different?

What happens when rocks rub together?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 three rocks1
Part 1: Three Rocks
  • Vocabulary
    • Rock
    • Dust
    • Geologist
  • Respond to focus question

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 washing three rocks
Part 2: Washing Three Rocks
  • Focus question

What happens when rocks are washed?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 washing three rocks1
Part 2: Washing Three Rocks

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 washing three rocks2
Part 2: Washing Three Rocks
  • Find a Rock

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

rock names
ROCK NAMES
  • Basalt is the gray, smooth rock. It was once the hot liquid lava that came out of a volcano.
  • Tuff is the light, soft rock. It has ash in it from the fires of the volcano.
  • Scoria is the reddish bubbly rock. It was once the bubbly top of the lava.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 washing three rocks3
Part 2: Washing Three Rocks
  • Vocabulary
    • Basalt
    • Tuff
    • Scoria
  • Respond to focus question

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 3 first sorting
Part 3: First Sorting
  • Focus question

How are some rocks the same?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 3 first sorting1
Part 3: First Sorting
  • Vocabulary
    • Rough
    • Smooth
    • Pointed
    • Large
    • Small
    • Crystal
    • Dull

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 sorting games
Part 4: Sorting Games

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

concept development
Concept Development
  • Vocabulary
    • Any new descriptive words
  • Respond to focus question

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 5 start a rock collection
Part 5: Start a Rock Collection
  • Focus question

What rocks can we find around us?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 5 start a rock collection1
Part 5: Start a Rock Collection
  • If you wanted to find some rocks to collect, where would you look?

Where to Look for Rocks

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

foss science stories

FOSS Science Stories

Exploring Rocks

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

extensions
EXTENSIONS
  • Language Arts
    • Geologist Tool Kits
  • Math Problem A
  • Math Problem B
  • Art
    • Make rock people or pets
  • Games
    • Rock checkers

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

investigation 2 river rocks

Investigation 2: River Rocks

Screening River Rocks

River Rocks by Size

Sand and Silt

Exploring Clay

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

investigation 2 river rocks1
Investigation 2: River Rocks
  • Background
    • The solid, liquid, and gaseous materials that make up Earth and its atmosphere are know collectively as earth materials.
    • Rock that has broken away from the continuos layer of bedrock is found in particles that range from minuscule to the gigantic.
    • Geologists classify rock particles by size.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

size ranges used by foss
Clay - <0.004 mm

Silt - 0.004 - 0.062 mm

Sand - 0.062 - 2 mm

Gravel - 2 - 4 mm

Pebble - 4 - 64 mm

Cobble - 64 - 256 mm

Boulder - >256 mm

Size Ranges Used by FOSS

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 river rocks
Part 1: River Rocks
  • Focus question

How can rocks by sorted by size?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

discuss results
DISCUSS RESULTS

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

concept development1
Concept Development
  • Vocabulary
    • Earth material
    • Screen
    • Separate
    • Size
    • Sand
    • Gravel
    • Pebble
  • Respond to focus question

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 river rocks by size
Part 2: River Rocks by Size
  • Focus question

How else can rocks be sorted by size?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 river rocks by size1
Part 2: River Rocks by Size

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

concept development2
Concept Development
  • Vocabulary
    • Cobbles
    • Boulder
  • Respond to focus question

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 3 sand and silt
Part 3: Sand and Silt
  • Look at the vials with sand
  • Look at it carefully and describe how it looks, feels, and sounds
  • Place the sand on a paper plate to do your observations
    • Use a spoon to move sand around
  • Plate shaking (5 minutes)
    • Shake the plate gently back and forth on the table.
    • Place a pinch of sand in the vial and use the hand lenses to make observations.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

discuss observations
DISCUSS OBSERVATIONS
  • Describe what you noticed about the sand.
    • Are the sand particles all the same size?
    • What do the sand particles look like?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

discuss observations1
DISCUSS OBSERVATIONS
  • What do you think might happen if you mix sand and water?
      • Use the paper plate as a funnel to put the sand back in the vial.
      • Fill the vial with water.
      • Watch what happens to the water and sand.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

questions
QUESTIONS
  • What happened to the water that was poured on the sand?
  • What happened to the sand?
    • Place the cap on the vial and shake it.
    • What happened to the water and sand after you shook the vial?
  • Is the water clear now?
    • Why not?
      • Let them settle overnight.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

drawing sheets
DRAWING SHEETS
  • Draw what you see on the vials (p. 8).
    • Vials were set up earlier.
    • What do you see in the vials?
    • How many layers do you see?
    • Where is the sand?
    • What do you see on top of the sand?
  • The layer of material on top of the sand is called silt. Silt is a particle of rock much smaller than sand. It’s the rock size that mud is made of.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

slide38
SILT
  • Label the layers in your drawings.
  • The layers should be called: sand, silt, and water.
  • What should the space between the top of the water and the vial cap be labeled?
  • Feel the silt.
    • Pour off the water in the vials into a 1/4 container.
    • Carefully, touch the top layer of silt. Try to pull some out and rub it between your fingers.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

clean up

CLEAN UP

Take vials to clean up area.

Add a little water, shake and dump the sand/water in basin.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 exploring clay
Part 4: Exploring Clay
  • Get a cube.
  • Look at this new earth material.
    • What is this material called?
    • What is special about this material?
    • What can you do with it?
    • What is happening to your hands as you work with this material?
    • What is the smallest size of rock we’ve worked so far?
      • Clay is made of pieces of rock even smaller than silt.
      • The dust in your hands is actually dry clay particles.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 exploring clay1
Part 4: Exploring Clay
  • Pinch off a small piece of clay, about 1 cm.
  • Predict what do you think will happen if you put the small ball of clay in a vial with water.
    • Put the small ball of clay in the vial.
    • Pout water into the vial almost to the top.
    • Watch what happens to the clay in water for a minute or two.
    • Cap the vial and shake it to see what happens.
  • What is happening to the clay?
  • Is the water changing?
    • Let it sit overnight

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 exploring clay2
Part 4: Exploring Clay
  • If dry, observe and squash the clay balls for a few minutes.
  • How can you get the clay soft and pliable again?
    • Put ball in a plastic cup and add a little water.
      • Set aside, let it sit for a while.
  • Observe pre set vials.
    • Compare to shook vials.
    • Draw the clay vial and label layers.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

questions1
QUESTIONS
  • What was the same in both vials?
  • What was different in both vials?
  • Look at the vial with the ball of clay.
    • What do you see?
  • Save the clay.
  • Clean up.
  • Extensions.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

investigation 3 using rocks

Investigation 3: Using Rocks

Rocks in Use

Looking at Sandpaper

Sand Sculptures

Clay Beads

Making Bricks

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 rocks in use

Part 1: Rocks in Use

Field trip.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 looking at sandpaper
Part 2: Looking at Sandpaper
  • Review sand
  • Important sand use: sandpaper
  • Pick up sandpaper
    • Use the hand lenses to observe the sandpaper.
    • Rub fingers gently over the paper.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 looking at sandpaper1
Part 2: Looking at Sandpaper
  • Vocabulary.
    • Three textures.
      • coarse - largest pieces
      • medium - middle-sized pieces
      • fine - smallest sand

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 looking at sandpaper2
Part 2: Looking at Sandpaper
  • Place white paper over the sandpaper
  • Rub with the side of a pencil or crayon to record the sandpaper texture
  • Label the rubbings
  • Identify sandpaper with the eyes closed
  • Rub sandpaper together
    • Share observations
  • Clean up

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 3 sand sculptures
Part 3: Sand Sculptures
  • Review the properties of sand.
  • Sand matrix (make it the night before)
    • Matrix is a material that holds articles of material together
  • Use two vials of sand and add one spoonful of matrix on top of the sand on a paper plate
  • Mold sand mixture
  • Allow sculptures to dry

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 clay beads
Part 4: Clay Beads
  • Review properties of clay
    • Stick together when is molded.
    • It hardens when it dries.
    • We will use these properties to make beads, then string the beads into necklaces.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 4 clay beads1
Part 4: Clay Beads
  • Techniques
    • Get a 3 cm ball of clay
    • Smooth with water if it cracks.
    • Use a pencil or straw to carve shapes and lines on the clay.
    • Poke with a piece of straw and let dry.
    • Should dry in 1-2 days.
    • Paint your creations when clay is dry.
    • Use a piece of yarn to make necklaces.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 5 making bricks

Part 5: Making Bricks

Extensions

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

inv 4 soil explorations

Inv 4: Soil Explorations

Homemade Soil

Soil Search

Studying Local Soil

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 homemade soil
Part 1: Homemade Soil
  • Look at new material
    • Describe the appearance, feel, and smell of the material
    • Humus (HUW mus)
      • It’s mostly plant material that has decayed or rotted

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 1 homemade soil1
Part 1: Homemade Soil
  • Making new earth material
    • Recipe: 2 cups of sand, 1 cup of gravel, 1 cup small pebbles
    • Add humus to the mixing
      • The name for the mixture we just made is soil. Soil is a combination of earth materials. Soil covers almost all of the Earth’s land surface

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

separating soil
SEPARATING SOIL
  • Place a sample of soil in a paper plate.
    • Observe.
    • Try to separate by hand.
    • By shaking.
  • Discuss observations.
  • Use screens to separate soil.
    • Where you able to separate the soil with the screens?
    • Where did the humus end up?
  • How can you separate the humus?

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

start soil and water investigation

START SOIL AND WATER INVESTIGATION

Set up your own investigation.

Pick up materials from station.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

discuss results1

DISCUSS RESULTS

Clean up

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 2 soil search

Part 2: Soil Search

Field Trip

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

part 3 studying local soil

Part 3: Studying Local Soil

Design an investigation.

Compare to the homemade soil.

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt

extensions1

EXTENSIONS

Pebbles, Sand, and Silt