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FOSSILS : . How do we know that there was life millions of years ago?? BY: BRIANNA SHIELDS. DO NOW. 1. What do you call remains or evidence of past life? 2. What large group of organisms currently do not exist, because they became extinct during the ice age?

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fossils

FOSSILS:

How do we know that there was life millions of years ago??

BY: BRIANNA SHIELDS

do now
DO NOW
  • 1. What do you call remains or evidence of past life?
  • 2. What large group of organisms currently do not exist, because they became extinct during the ice age?
  • 3. The theory of ------------- is the scientific theory that explains how humans, and all living organisms can to be on planet Earth.
slide3
GOAL
  • To define fossil and to determine which types of fossils are older based on layering
what are fossils
Fossils

The remains or evidence of living things, traces of past life

What are fossils?
what are fossils5
Good Fossil Conditions

1. Objects should be hard:

Bone, teeth, shell, wood (Soft things like flesh, fur and petals don’t make good fossils)

What are fossils?
what are fossils6
Good Fossil Conditions

2. Remains need to be there long enough

sometimes the remains get destroyed before a fossil can form

What are fossils?
what are fossils7
Good Fossil Conditions

3. Quick burial- air will rot remains

keeps air from rotting remains, and animals from ruining them

What are fossils?
what are fossils10
Fossils can be ruined by:

3. Crushing by other animals

What are fossils?
what are fossils12
Fossils can be ruined by:

5. Weathering & Wave Action (broken down by nature)

What are fossils?
fossil video questions
Fossil Video Questions
  • In what type of rock do fossils typically form?
  • How do remains become fossilized?
how do fossils form
Fossil Formation

BBC Making Fossils Website

A. In sedimentary rock

B. Marine animal dies, settles to ocean bottom

C. Remains cover by sediment (body decays)

D. Hard parts protected from air

E. Sediment layers continue to build and compress

F. Erosion uncovers fossil

How do fossils form?
types of fossils
Molds

Remains cover with sediment, soft part rots leaving a hollow space

Types of Fossils
types of fossils17
Casts

Formed when the mold gets filled in with hard sediment

Types of Fossils
types of fossils18
Prints

Footprints harden in soft mud

Can tell us how it walked, how big, body shape, skin appearance

Types of Fossils
types of fossils19
Changed Hard Parts

Actual remains preserved & hardened with minerals

Types of Fossils
types of fossils20
Actual Remains

Actual parts of plant or animal is preserved, no rotting

Ex: Freezing, drying, amber, tar

Types of Fossils
slide21

Frozen entire whooly mammoths

Extremely dried out mummies

Insects in hardened tree sap

Hot tar pits that have hardened: La Brea, California

finding the age of fossils
Relative Dating of Fossils

Younger rocks (top layer) are found on top of older rocks (bottom layer)

“LAW OF SUPERPOSITION”

Ex: Diagram A

Finding the Age of Fossils
finding the age of fossils23
Index Fossils

Fossils that lived during a short period of time

Can help in aging rock

Ex: Diagram E

Which are index fossils?

Which fossils are not as helpful for aging?

Finding the Age of Fossils
finding the age of fossils24
Absolute Dating of Fossils

Use radioactive elements whose length of break down is known

C-14 and U-238

Geiger Counter

Finding the Age of Fossils
finding the age of fossils25
Fossil Age Rule

A fossil is the same age as the rock that it’s found in

Finding the Age of Fossils
life on earth according to fossils
What have fossils told us?

Life has existed on Earth for nearly 3 billion years

Life on Earth: According to Fossils
life on earth according to fossils28
What have fossils told us?

Simple life began in water, evolved, became terrestrial

Life on Earth: According to Fossils
life on earth according to fossils29
What have fossils told us?

Some organisms have become extinct

Trilobite, Woolly Mammoth, Dinosaurs

Life on Earth: According to Fossils
life on earth according to fossils30
What have fossils told us?

Some life forms have hardly changed

Ex: Cockroaches, snails, snakes

Life on Earth: According to Fossils
fossil websites
Fossil Websites
  • BBC- Burying Bodies
  • BBC- Making Fossils
assessment
Explain why many animals/plants don’t become fossils?

Many remains are crushed, ruined, eroded, rotted, eaten or burned before they become fossils

Assessment
assessment33
What types of objects make the best fossils?

Hard parts- teeth, shells, bones, wood

Assessment
assessment34
Describe where most fossils are formed and how they actually form.

Many fossils form in sedimentary rock that used to be covered by oceans. When organism dies, gets buried by sediment in ocean, soft parts rot, hard parts preserved by sediment

Assessment
assessment35
Tell about the difference between a mold and a cast

Mold is hollow space left in sediment when animal rots, cast is when mold gets filled back in with other sediment

Assessment
assessment36
Explain how changed hart parts fossils are formed

When actual body parts fill with minerals changing them to a harder substance

Assessment
assessment37
Compare techniques used for dating fossils

Law of superposition (relative dating), index fossils, absolute dating

Assessment