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Evolution . Just what you need for the test powerpoint. Arguments for Evolution. 1 Fossil evidence – fossils determine age 2 Anatomy – homologous and vestigial 3 Embryology - recapitulation 4 Biochemistry – DNA and similar proteins 5 Distribution of animals – animals are

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evolution

Evolution

Just what you need for the test

powerpoint

arguments for evolution
Arguments for Evolution
  • 1 Fossil evidence – fossils determine age
  • 2 Anatomy – homologous and vestigial
  • 3 Embryology - recapitulation
  • 4 Biochemistry – DNA and similar proteins
  • 5 Distribution of animals – animals are

different in isolated areas

ch 8 the history of life

biblical worldview

  • Word of God
  • source of absolute truth
  • 1. creation (ex nihilo) Gen 1 – 11
  • 2. the fall Gen 3:17-19
  • 3. redemption Matt 1:21, Luke 24:46-47

Ch. 8 The History of Life

ch 8 the history of life1

Non-biblical worldview:

  • theory of evolution
  • theory of cosmological beginnings
  • - Big Bang

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Non-biblical worldview:

  • theory of evolution
  • 2. theory of biological evolution
  • - less complex organisms
  • give rise to
  • more complex organisms

Ch. 8 The History of Life

ch 8 the history of life3

Non-biblical worldview:

  • theory of evolution
  • 3. philosophy of evolution
  • - all things are progressing
  • toward a future perfection

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Results of believing

  • evolution theory
  • 1. man is not responsible to God
  • 2. man does not need a savior
  • 3. man is a highly evolved animal
  • 4. man’s religion = scientism

Ch. 8 The History of Life

ch 8 the history of life5

Ch. 8 The History of Life

  • theistic evolution:
  • interpreting the Bible
  • to support evolution
apparent age
Apparent Age
  • The earth was created fully mature, just as Adam was not born an infant.
  • If the world was created mature, then this could possibly throw off the age the geologists give to land formations.
charles lyell 1797 1875
Charles Lyell 1797 - 1875
  • A geologist that stated that the earth was millions of years old.
  • Determined this by the rate of natural processes that take place at a predictable rate.
thomas malthus
Thomas Malthus
  • An economist who proposed that resources such as food, water and shelter are natural limits to human population growth.
ch 8 the history of life6

Lamarkian evolution 1801

  • Theory of
  • need
  • use & disuse
  • inheritance of acquired
  • characteristics

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Lamarkian evolution 1801

  • Objections
  • need doesn’t affect DNA
  • DNA not affected by use or disuse

Ch. 8 The History of Life

ch 8 the history of life8

Always be ready

  • to give an answer
  • to every man
  • that asks for a reason
  • for the hope
  • that is within you.
  • 1 Peter 3:15

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Darwin’s theory of evolution

  • Descent with modification
  • common ancestor
  • 2. “survival of the fittest”
  • natural selection

Ch. 8 The History of Life

descent with modification
Descent with modification
  • Common Ancestor??
  • Yes!!!
  • But not from a ancestor of a different species.
ch 8 the history of life11

Darwin’s theory of evolution

  • Objections:
  • Variations of a Biblical kind
  • are not newly evolved organisms
  • Not always overpopulation
  • Not always the fittest that reproduce

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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pangenes

genes that travel from the affected organ

to repro organs to be given to offspring

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Darwinism

changes due to need

Neo-Darwinism

changes occur due to sudden mutations

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Mutations

a change in the nucleotide base

sequence (DNA) of a gene

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Mutations do NOT cause evolution

  • 1 in 10 million divisions
  • usually harmful
  • All good mutations have to be in 1 organism?

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Ch. 8 The History of Life

Genetic Load: # of mutations

1,000s of mutations

would kill an organisms

ch 8 the history of life17

Punctuated equilibrium:

evolution occurs rapidly

for a while and

then not at all

for awhile

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Theory of Recapitulation

ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny

We go through stages of

evolution during

development

Ch. 8 The History of Life

arguments for evolution1
Arguments for Evolution
  • 1 Fossil evidence – fossils determine age
  • 2 Anatomy – homologous and vestigial
  • 3 Embryology - recapitulation
  • 4 Biochemistry – DNA and similar proteins
  • 5 Distribution of animals – animals are

different in isolated areas

ch 8 the history of life20

Ch. 8 The History of Life

  • fossil:
  • any direct or indirect evidence
  • of a once-living organism
  • that is embedded or preserved
  • in the earth’s crust
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types of fossils

  • Preserved parts
  • - must be quickly placed under
  • pressure in rock-forming sediment

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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types of fossils

  • 2. Preserved carbon (coal) “fossil fuel”
  • - plant material under
  • high temp & pressure

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Ch. 8 The History of Life

  • types of fossils
  • 3. Preserved forms
  • - casts or molds
  • - rarely in tar pits
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Ch. 8 The History of Life

  • types of fossils
  • 4. Preserved tracks
  • - made in soft mud
  • which was turned
  • to stone
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Ch. 8 The History of Life

  • types of fossils
  • 5. Petrification
  • - when water with
  • minerals penetrates
  • the solid parts of organisms
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deluge:

  • to wash from
  • deluge theory of fossilization:

most fossils were formed

as a result of the flood

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Age of the Earth

  • Dating fossils with fossils?
  • * layers of the earth are assigned dates
  • * index fossils are assigned dates
  • * fossils found above index are “younger”
  • * fossils found below index are “older”

Ch. 8 The History of Life

sedimentary rock fossils
Sedimentary Rock & Fossils
  • The oldest layers are at the bottom, the more recent layers are at the top.
ch 8 the history of life29

Phylogenetic Tree

  • a line up of organisms
  • based on how they
  • might be related
  • similar appearance = common ancestor?

Ch. 8 The History of Life

common ancestors
Common Ancestors ?

Phylogenetic

tree

ch 8 the history of life31

Age of the Earth

  • Evolved over 4.5 billion years?
  • based date on…
  • * time needed for biological
  • evolution
  • * physical dating methods

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Dating Methods

3. Decay or Buildup

* radiometric dating methods

(1) uranium-lead method:

half-life = 4.5 billion years

½ U decays to lead

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Dating Methods

(2) carbon-14 dating

half-life = 5730 year

½ of C-14 decays to nitrogen

Ch. 8 The History of Life

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Dating Methods

assumptions of carbon dating

1. constant amount of C-14 vs C-12

2. equal C-14 formed & destroyed

3. C-14 decay rate constant

4. Constant amount of C-12 available

Ch. 8 The History of Life

ch 8 the history of life35

Creation Week

  • Day 1 > light & darkness / day & night
  • Day 2 > firmament / waters divided
  • Day 3 > land & seas / plants
  • Day 4 > sun, moon & stars
  • Day 5 > animals of air & water
  • Day 6 > land animals & man

Ch. 8 The History of Life

non literal interpretations
Non literal interpretations
  • Theistic Evolution
  • Gap Theory
  • Day-Age theory