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Organic Chemistry
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Organic Chemistry

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  1. Organic Chemistry Chapters 22 + 23

  2. Organic Chemistry • Organic vs. Inorganic Chemistry- organic compounds contain carbon, inorganic compounds do not • Organic Compounds- initially obtained only from living organisms (living & fossilized)EX: crude oil, protein, fats, dyes, coal

  3. Organic Synthesis • human induced production of organic compounds in a lab setting • EX: pharmaceuticals, additives

  4. Organic Vocabulary • Hydrocarbon- compound containing only C & H • Derivatives- compounds where H is replaced by another type of atom • Carbon Backbone- longest carbon chain within a molecule (also used to name the compound) • Unbranched- carbon backbone form a linear structure • Branched- carbon backbone branches off at least once • Saturated- contains all C-C single bonds • Unsaturated- contain at least 1 C=C or C≡C bond

  5. Drawing Simple Hydrocarbons • Alkanes- saturated hydrocarbons (CnH2n+2) • prefixes: meth-, eth-, prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec- • ending: -ane • Alkenes- unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least 1 C=C bond (CnH2n) • end in –ene (Ex: C5H10 = pentene) • Alkynes- unsaturated hydrocarbons with at least 1 C≡C bond (CnH2n-2) • end in –yne (Ex: C5H8= pentyne)

  6. Naming and Isomers • Isomers- compounds with exact molecular formulas, but different structural formulas • Isomers have different names... • Naming: • Identify longest chain of carbons (backbone) • Number carbons in the backbone • Decide prefix and ending (are there double/triple bonds?) • Number substituent groups (Ex: methyl, ethyl, etc.) • Alphabetize

  7. Drawing/Naming Isomers • EXAMPLE: C6H14

  8. Assignment • Drawing Handout p. 3-4 pkt

  9. Organic Functional Groups • commonly found groups of atoms that appear in many organic compounds (see handout) • R Represents ANY hydrocarbon group

  10. Common Functional Groups

  11. Benzene and Aromatics • Benzene (C6H6)- probably the most important aromatic compound (used in plastics, dyes, medicines, paint, explosives, fragrances, etc) • Aromatic- compounds containing benzene rings

  12. Gasoline, Esters, Polymers • Fractional Distillation- used to separate crude oil into useful products • Esterification- making esters from an acid and an alcohol • Polymerization- making large repeating molecules • Addition- no particles lost • Condensation- eliminates particles

  13. Assignment • Assignment • P. 742- 753 # 4, 5, 9, 11, 12, 15 • P. 727 # 32-35 • P. 753-765 #16, 25-27