Organic Chemistry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

zelia
organic chemistry n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Organic Chemistry PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Organic Chemistry

play fullscreen
1 / 81
Download Presentation
Organic Chemistry
162 Views
Download Presentation

Organic Chemistry

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Organic Chemistry Ms. Napolitano Honors Biology

  2. Introduction to Orgo • Organic chem – the study of C based compounds (must have both C & H) • Why Carbon? • It’s versatile! • 4 valence electrons (4 covalent bonds) • Form simple or complex compounds • C chains form backbone of most biological molecules (straight, bent, double bond, rings)

  3. Hydrocarbons • Hydrocarbons ONLY consist of C & H • Importance – store energy • Hydrophobic

  4. Organic Shorthand

  5. Isomers • Isomers – same number of atoms per element, different arrangement • 3 types: • Structural – differ in covalent partners • Geometric – differ in arrangement around a double bond • Enantiomers – mirror images of each other • Different structure means different function!

  6. Functional Groups • Functional groups– parts of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions • replace H in hydrocarbons • Most are hydrophilic • Variation of life is due to molecular variation

  7. Functional Groups

  8. Isomers Geometric Isomers Structural Isomers cis trans Enantiomers

  9. 10/29 – Do Now • Draw the following compounds using organic shorthand. • Draw out all hydrogens and carbons for the following compounds. What is the chemical formula? 1. 2. 3. C4H9OH 4. C4H8 8. 5. 6. 7.

  10. Practice Problem • Draw the following compound (Retinol – Vitamin A) using organic shorthand.

  11. Isomers • Isomers – same number of atoms per element, different arrangement • 3 types: • Structural – differ in covalent partners • Geometric – differ in arrangement around a double bond • Enantiomers – mirror images of each other • Different structure means different function!

  12. Cyanide is an organic compound. • True • False

  13. What kind of isomers are these? • Structural • Geometric • Enantiomers

  14. This is a fatty acid. What type of isomer would you expect to see? • Structural • Geometric • Enantiomers

  15. Functional Groups • Functional groups– parts of organic molecules that are most commonly involved in chemical reactions • replace H in hydrocarbons • Most are hydrophilic • Variation of life is due to molecular variation

  16. Functional Groups

  17. Macromolecules • Huge biological molecules! • 4 classes: • Carbohydrates • Lipids • Proteins • Nucleic Acids • Polymers – long molecule made of monomers

  18. Polymerization • Building dimers or polymers • Condensation rxn AKA dehydration synthesis: • Monomer-OH + monomer-H  dimer + H2O • Breaking down dimers or polymers • Reverse rxn called hydrolysis • Dimer + H2O monomer-OH + monomer-H

  19. The breaking down of foods during digestion is an example of dehydration synthesis. • True • False

  20. The breaking down of foods during digestion is an example of dehydration synthesis. • True • *False

  21. Amino acids (shown below) are linked together to form proteins. This is an example of dehydration synthesis. • True • False

  22. Amino acids (shown below) are linked together to form proteins. This is an example of dehydration synthesis. • *True • False

  23. Carbohydrates • Cells get most of their energy from carbs • Carbs are sugars, most end in “-ose” • Multiple of molecular formula: CH2O • Glucose: C6H12O6 • Carbonyl group • Multiple hydroxyl groups

  24. Carbohydrates • Monosaccharides • Monomers: simple sugars w/ 3-7 carbons • Ex. (C6H12O6): Glucose, Fructose, Galactose • Disaccharide – formed by 2 monosaccharides forming a glycosidic linkage by dehydration synthesis • Ex: • glucose + glucose  maltose + H2O • glucose + fructose  sucrose + H2O • glucose + galactose  lactose + H2O

  25. Carbohydrates

  26. Carbohydrates • Polysaccharides: 100’s – 1000’s of monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages • Storage polysaccharides • Starch • Plants – stored in plastids • Made entirely of glucose - helical • Glycogen • Animals – stored in liver & muscle (in vertebrates) • Made entirely of glucose - branched • Structural polysaccharides • Cellulose – plant cell walls • Made of glucose – linear • Chitin • Exoskeleton of arthropods & fungi cell walls

  27. A compound has the molecular formula C5H10O5. Is it a carbohydrate? • Yes • No

  28. A compound has the molecular formula C5H10O5. Is it a carbohydrate? • *Yes • No

  29. Two monosaccharides are joined together by hydrolysis to form a disaccharide. • True • False

  30. Two monosaccharides are joined together by hydrolysis to form a disaccharide. • True • *False

  31. Which of the following is only made in animals? • Collagen • Glycogen • Starch

  32. Which of the following is only made in animals? • Collagen • *Glycogen • Starch

  33. Which of the following is only made by fungi? • Collagen • Glycogen • Starch • Chitin

  34. Which of the following is only made by fungi? • Collagen • Glycogen • Starch • *Chitin

  35. 11/6 - Do Now • Grab your clickers! • Take out your carbohydrates lab. • Draw the dehydration synthesis reaction that joins the following two molecules:

  36. Lipids • No polymers! • Hydrophobic (mostly hydrocarbons) • Store energy efficiently (2x more than carbs!) • Types : • Fats & oils • Phospholipids • Steroids • Waxes

  37. Fats & Oils • Fat = dehydration synthesis of: • Glycerol C3H5(OH)3 • Fatty acid: 16 or 18 carbon hydrocarbon chain w/ carboxyl group • Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains = triglyceride + 3 H2O • Function: • Energy storage • Insulation • Protective cushioning around organs

  38. Saturated Fats • No double bonds between carbons • Saturated with hydrogens • Solid at room temperature • Mostly animal fat • Ex: butter, lard, adipose

  39. Unsaturated Fats • 1 or more double bonds between carbons • Bent or kinked chains • Liquid at room temperature • Mostly plant or fish fat • Ex: olive oil, cod liver oil, corn oil

  40. Phospholipids • Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate • Phosphate head = hydrophilic • Fatty acid tails = hydrophobic • Form a bilayer in water • Makes up cell membranes

  41. Phospholipids

  42. Steroids • 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups • Ex: cholesterol • Component of cell membrane & many hormones

  43. 11/12 – Do Now • Take out your lipids HW from the weekend. • Grab your clickers! • Fill out the the Venn Diagram comparing carbs and lipids. Lipids Carbs

  44. Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed? • Triglycerides • Waxes • Lipids • Fatty acids • Sterols • Phospholipids

  45. Which of the following is a class of molecules that encompasses all of the other molecules listed? • *Triglycerides • Waxes • Lipids • Fatty acids • Sterols • Phospholipids

  46. One molecule of fat is made by joining three molecules of _________ to one molecule of _________ . • Glycerol, fatty acid • Sterols, phosphate • Phosphate, sterols • Fatty acid, glycerol

  47. One molecule of fat is made by joining three molecules of _________ to one molecule of _________ . • Glycerol, fatty acid • Sterols, phosphate • Phosphate, sterols • *Fatty acid, glycerol

  48. Which of the following is most likely to have all single bonds in its fatty acid chain? • Coconut oil • Sunflower oil • Canola oil • Olive oil