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Organic Chemistry

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  1. Organic Chemistry William H. Brown & Christopher S. Foote

  2. Alkenes II Chapter 6

  3. Characteristic Reactions

  4. Characteristic Reactions

  5. Reaction Mechanisms • A reaction mechanism describes details of how a reaction occurs • which bonds are broken and which new ones are formed • the order and relative rates of the various bond-breaking and bond-forming steps • if in solution, the role of the solvent • if there is a catalyst, the role of a catalyst • the position of all atoms and energy of the entire system during the reaction

  6. Energy Diagrams • Energy diagram: a graph showing the changes in energy that occur during a chemical reaction • Reaction coordinate:a measure in the change in positions of atoms during a reaction

  7. Gibbs Free Energy • Gibbs free energy: a thermodynamic function relating enthalpy, entropy, and temperature • exergonic reaction: a reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is lower than that of the reactants; an exergonic reaction is spontaneous • endergonic reaction: a reaction in which the Gibbs free energy of the products is higher than that of the reactants; an endergonic reaction is never spontaneous.

  8. Gibbs Free Energy

  9. Energy Diagrams • Heat of reaction:the difference in energy between reactants and products • exothermic reaction:a reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is lower than that of the reactants; a reaction in which heat is released • endothermic reaction:a reaction in which the enthalpy of the products is higher than that of the reactants; a reaction in which heat is absorbed

  10. Activation Energy • Transition state: • an unstable species of maximum energy formed during the course of a reaction • a maximum on an energy diagram • Activation Energy, G‡:the difference in energy between reactants and a transition state • if large, only a few collisions occur with sufficient energy to reach the transition state; reaction is slow • if small, many collisions occur with sufficient energy to reach the transition state; reaction is fast

  11. Energy Diagram A one-step reaction with no intermediate

  12. Energy Diagram A two-step reaction with one intermediate

  13. Activation Energy & Rate • The relationship between a rate constant, k, and activation energy is given by the equation C = a constant (units s-1) that depends on the reaction R = gas constant, 8.315 x 10-3 kJ (1.987 x 10-3 kcal)•mol-1•K -1 T = temperature in Kelvins

  14. Activation Energy & Rate Example:What is the activation energy for a reaction whose rate at 35°C is twice that at 25°C? Solution: the ratio of rate constants k2 and k1 for the reaction at temperatures T2 and T1 is taking the log of both sides and rearranging gives

  15. Activation Energy & Rate • substituting values and solving gives

  16. Developing a Mechanism • How it is done • design experiments to reveal details of a particular chemical reaction • propose a set or sets of steps that might account for the overall transformation • a mechanism becomes established when it is shown to be consistent with every test that can be devised • this does mean that the mechanism is correct, only that it is the best explanation we are able to devise

  17. Why Mechanisms? • framework within which to organize descriptive chemistry • intellectual satisfaction derived from constructing models that accurately reflect the behavior of chemical systems • a tool with which to search for new information and new understanding

  18. Electrophilic Additions • hydrohalogenation using HCl, HBr, HI • hydration using H2O, H2SO4 • halogenation using Cl2, Br2 • halohydrination using HOCl, HOBr • oxymercuration using Hg(OAc)2, H2O

  19. Addition of HX • Carried out with pure reagents or in a polar solvent such as acetic acid • Addition is regioselective • regioselective reaction:a reaction in which one direction of bond forming or breaking occurs in preference to all other directions of bond forming or breaking • regiospecific reaction: a reaction in which one direction of bond forming or breaking occurs to the exclusion of all other directions of bond forming or breaking

  20. Addition of HX • H adds to the less substituted carbon • Markovnikov’s rule:in the addition of HX, H2O, or ROH to an alkene, H adds to the carbon of the double bond having the greater number of hydrogens

  21. HCl + 2-Butene • A two-step mechanism Step 1: formation of sec-butyl cation, a 2° carbocation intermediate Step 2: reaction of the sec-butyl cation (a Lewis acid) with chloride ion (a Lewis base) completes the reaction

  22. HCl + 2-Butene

  23. Carbocations • Carbocation:a species in which a carbon atom has only six electrons in its valence shell and bears positive charge • Carbocations are • classified as 1°, 2°, or 3° depending on the number of carbons bonded to the carbon bearing the positive charge • electrophiles; that is, they are electron-loving • Lewis acids

  24. Carbocation Structure • bond angles about a positively charged carbon are approx. 120° • carbon uses sp2 hybrid orbitals to form sigma bonds to the three attached groups • the unhybridized 2p orbital lies perpendicular to the sigma bond framework and contains no electrons

  25. Carbocation Stability • a 3° carbocation is more stable than a 2° carbocation, and requires a lower activation energy for its formation • a 2° carbocation is, in turn, more stable than a 1° carbocation, and requires a lower activation energy for its formation • methyl and primary carbocations are so unstable that they are never observed in solution

  26. Carbocation Stability • relative stability • methyl and primary carbocations are so unstable that they are never observed in solution

  27. Carbocation Stability • we can account for the relative stability of carbocations if we assume that alkyl groups attached to the positively charged carbon are electron-releasing and thereby help delocalize the positive charge of the cation • we account for this electron-releasing ability of alkyl groups by (1) the inductive effect, and (2) hyperconjugation

  28. Carbocation Stability • The inductive effect • the electron-deficient carbon bearing the positive charge polarizes electrons of the adjacent sigma bonds toward it • the positive charge on the cation is not localized on the trivalent carbon, but delocalized over nearby atoms • the larger the volume over which the positive charge is delocalized, the greater the stability of the cation

  29. Carbocation Stability • Hyperconjugation • partial overlap of the  bonding orbital of an adjacent C-H bond with the vacant 2p orbital of the cationic carbon delocalizes the positive charge and also the electrons of the adjacent  bond • replacing a C-H bond with a C-C bond increases the possibility for hyperconjugation

  30. Addition of H2O • addition of water is called hydration • acid-catalyzed hydration of an alkene is regioselective; hydrogen adds preferentially to the less substituted carbon of the double bond

  31. Addition of H2O • Step 1: proton transfer from solvent to the alkene • Step 2: a Lewis acid/base reaction • Step 3: proton transfer to solvent

  32. C+ Rearrangements • In electrophilic addition to alkenes, there is the possibility for rearrangement • Rearrangement:a change in connectivity of the atoms in a product compared with the connectivity of the same atoms in the starting material

  33. C+ Rearrangements • in addition of HCl to an alkene • in acid-catalyzed hydration of an alkene

  34. C+ Rearrangements • driving force is rearrangement of a less stable carbocation to a more stable one • the less stable 2° carbocation rearranges to a more stable 3° one by 1,2-shift of a hydride ion

  35. C+ Rearrangements • reaction of the more stable carbocation (a Lewis acid) with chloride ion (a Lewis base) completes the reaction

  36. Addition of Cl2 and Br2 • carried out with either the pure reagents or in an inert solvent such as CH2Cl2 • addition is stereoselective • Stereoselective reaction:a reaction in which one stereoisomer is formed or destroyed in preference to all others • Stereospecific reaction:a reaction in which one stereoisomer is formed or destroyed to the exclusion to all others

  37. Addition of Cl2 and Br2

  38. Addition of Cl2 and Br2 • Step 1: formation of a bridged bromonium ion intermediate • Step 2: attack of halide ion from the opposite side of the three-membered ring

  39. Addition of Cl2 and Br2 • For a cyclohexene, anti coplanar addition corresponds to transdiaxial addition

  40. Addition of HOCl and HOBr • Treatment of an alkene with Br2 or Cl2 in water forms a halohydrin • Halohydrin:a compound containing -OH and -X on adjacent carbons

  41. Addition of HOCl and HOBr • reaction is both regiospecific (anti addition) and stereoselective (OH to the more substituted carbon)

  42. Addition of HOCl and HOBr Step 1: formation of a bridged halonium ion intermediate Step 2: attack of H2O on the more substituted carbon opens the three-membered ring

  43. Oxymercuration/Reduction • oxymercuration followed by reduction results in hydration of a carbon-carbon double bond

  44. Oxymercuration/Reduction • addition of Hg(II) and oxygen is anti coplanar stereoselective

  45. Oxymercuration/Reduction • Step 1: dissociation of mercury (II) acetate gives AcOHg+, a Lewis acid • Step 2: attack of AcOHg+ on the double bond gives a bridged mercurinium ion intermediate in which the two electrons of the pi bond form a two-atom three-center bond

  46. Oxymercuration/Reduction

  47. Oxymercuration/Reduction • Step 3: stereospecific and regioselective attack of H2O on the bridged intermediate opens the mercurinium ion ring • Step 4: reduction of the C-HgOAc bond

  48. Oxymercuration/Reduction • the fact that oxymercuration occurs without rearrangement indicates that the intermediate is not a true carbocation, but rather a resonance hybrid closely resembling a bridged mercurinium ion intermediate • regioselectivity is accounted for by at least some carbocation character in the bridged intermediate • stereospecificity is accounted for by anti attack on the bridged intermediate

  49. Hydroboration/Oxidation • Hydroboration:the addition of borane, BH3, to an alkene to form a trialkylborane • Borane dimerizes to diborane, B2H6

  50. Hydroboration/Oxidation • borane forms a stable complex with ethers such as THF • the reagent is used most often as a commercially available solution of BH3 in THF