Presentation on the Scenic Spots of Hangzhou杭州景点讲解
1）Briefing on the West Lake; (The formation of the lake; The legend about the lake ) Key points: its location and size; the four features of the lake; the five parts of the lake; Four Islets in the lake; the origin of the lake’s name 1. Briefing on the West Lake; Xiling Bridge;Mucai Pavilion
（1）the location and size • The West Lake in Hangzhou is a must for the travelers, regarded as a pearl in the paradise and Hangzhou becomes so beautiful and elegant because of the lake.
A. The location and size of the lake; • Covering an area of 5.66 square kilometers, the lake is located to the west of Hangzhou and it is surrounded by mountains at three sides. Its average depth is 2.27 meters. Its lowest part is about one meter deep and the deepest part is five meters. It's a fresh water lake, and the water in the lake is the spring water from the mountains, the natural drops of rain and the water from Qiantang River through underground pipes. .
B. The four features of the lake • The characteristic of the layout of the lake is “one, two, three, four”, which stands for four features, namely (That is to say), one lake, two pagodas, three causeways and four islands. (the West lake; Baoshu Pagoda and Leifeng Pagoda; Bai Causeway, Su Causeway and Yang Causeway； Three Pools Mirroring the Moon, Mid-lake Islet, Ruangong Islet and the Solitary Hill, the natural one.)
C. The five parts of the lake; • The lake is divided into five parts by two artificial causeways,.One is Su Causeway named after Su Dongpo the governor and a poet in the Song Dynasty .Another is Bai Causeway named after BaiJuyi, the governor and also a poet in the Tang Dynasty. The five parts of the lake are: Outer Lake, West Inner Lake, North Inner Lake, Lesser South Lake and Yue Lake .The Out Lake is the largest part.
D. Four Islets in the lake • In the lake are dotted three man-made islands and one natural island. They are: Three Pools Mirroring the Moon, Mid-lake Islet, Ruangong Islet and the Solitary Hill, the natural one.
E. The origin of the lake’s name • There're altogether 36 lakes in China by the name of West Lake, but the one in Hangzhou is the best. It's so named in Hangzhou because of two reasons. One is from the location. The lake in Hangzhou lies in the west of the city. The second is from one of the four ancient Chinese beauties, named Xi Shi. It's said she was living about 2400 years ago during the Spring and Autumn Period. She looked same pretty no matter in plain dress or make-up. During the Song Dynasty when Su Dongpo, a noted poet, became a governor in Hangzhou, he composed hundred of poems. In one of his famous poems he compared the lake to the ancient beauty. He believed that the West Lake looked same beautiful whether in sunshine or in rain. So it's named Xizi Lake after the beauty Xi Shi.
2）The Formation of the Lake and the legend about the lake • Key points: the scientific elements for its formation; the legendary story for its formation • Scientifically, it was lagoon. According to a legend it was a pearl from the heaven.
A. The scientific elements for the lake’s formation • The West Lake is a natural lake. Before the Qin Dynasty about 2200 years ago, the West Lake area was a sallow bay connecting with the Qiantang River. And later it was separated from the sea because of the silt carried by the tidal waves of the Qiantang River. Around 1300 years ago, it became a beautiful, charming and wonderful lagoon lake. Soon it was completely separated from the sea. But it became a fresh-water lake until the Sui Dynasty about 1,400 years ago.
B. The Legendary story for the lake’s formation—the Jade Dragon and Golden Phoenix • According to a folktale, the lake was a bright pearl coming from heaven. • Once upon a time, there lived a jade dragon and a golden phoenix in heaven. They grew up together and enjoyed each other’s company. One day when they were enjoying themselves in the open air, they caught sight of a very special stone. The phoenix suggested that they carve it into a pearl. The dragon thought it a great idea. So they started working together, the phoenix with her beak and the dragon with his paws.
Gradually a dazzling pearl was carved out of the stone. It was such a magic pearl that trees grew greener, flowers lasted longer and the land yielded a bumper harvest when bathed in its shine. The dragon and the phoenix loved the pearl so much that they decided to live together and guard it on the island where they found the stone forever. • One day, the Queen Mother of the West was amazed by the brilliant rays in the sky and wanted to know from where it came. When reported that it was from a bright pearl, she immediately ordered: ‘Go and get it for me!’
The pearl was stolen while the dragon and the phoenix were fast asleep. The old lady was so carried away by its beauty that she longed to keep it forever. In order not to lose it, she had it locked in a room after nine doors. • When they found their pearl missing, the dragon and the phoenix were very upset and searched for it everywhere. They believed that if they kept searching, they’d finally find it by its rays, which could reach very far. But they didn’t know that it was locked behind nine doors and the rays could not come out at all.
The big day came when the old lady was celebrating her 900th birthday. She invited all the celestial beings and treated them with a grand feast. It was of course the very occasion for her show off all her treasures. One after another, all the treasures were displayed to the guests. At last, but not the least, it was the pearl’s turn. • As soon as the pearl appeared in a tray, all the guests were dumbfounded. Nobody had ever seen such a beautiful pearl. And meanwhile the dragon and the phenix saw the rays radiating from the pear. Without much difficulty, they traced into the palace and found the old lady showing offtheir pearl.
They pushed their way to her through the crowd and demanded the pearl back. ‘We spent 3 long years carving the pearl. Why should you have stolen it?’ The lady felt very embarrassed and ordered to have them expelled from the palace. The dragon and the phoenix beat the guards and went directly for their pearl. • The three of them were involved in a heated fight. However nobody took hold of the pearl. It dropped onto the ground and rolled all the way out of the palace. It fell and fell and fell and finally it landed on the west of Hangzhou. As soon as it touched the ground, it turned into a beautiful clear lake. That was the West Lake.
The dragon and the phoenix, when they saw that their pearl became such a beautiful lake, they felt reluctant to part from it. Consequently, they changed themselves into two hills—the Jade Emperor Hill and the Phoenix Hill—standing on the south of the West Lake, guarding this ‘bright pearl’.
The location of Xiling Bridge used to be a ferry in ancient times, when people had to ferry across to the opposite bank to tour Solitary Hill. The present bridge stretches across the foot of Qixia Ridge to Solitary Hill. Local people lovingly associate it with Su Xiaoxiao, a geisha known for her beauty and literary talent about 1,100 years ago, and regard it as one of the three ‘bridges of love’. It was at this bridge that Su Xiaoxiao, met her lover Ruan Yu on his tall black horse. They fell in love with each other at the first sight and soon lived together. .
3）Mucai Pavilion (the Pavilion for Admiring the Talent) Key points: the story of Su Xiaoxiao; the history of the Pavilion “Talent Admiring”
Su Xiaoxiao was a native of Hangzhou, a most famous geisha in the Five Dynasties about 1100 years ago. She was smart and pretty and she lived with her aunt because her parents died at her younger age. • While sightseeing in her carriage, she met her lover Ruan yu, riding on a gray horse at Xiling Bridge and she fell in love with him at the first sight. She soon made to live with him happily. Later his father sent a letter to Ruan yu and told him that his mother was serious ill. So Ruan yu had to say goodbye to Su Xiaoxiao and went back home. Upon his departure, Ruan yu promised to come back to marry her as soon as possible. From that time on, Su closed her door to visitors and waited day and night, but Ruan yu never returned. At last Su Xiaoxiao died of lovesickness at the age of 22. According to her wish, she was buried near the Xiling Bridge, and later a pavilion was set up nearby named as the Pavilion for Admiring the Talented.
(2) The history of Mucai Pavilion (the Pavilion for Admiring the Talented)
After Su Xiaoxiao died, Mr. Bao Ren, a scholar benefited from Su Xiaoxiao when he was in his distress and difficulties, buried her by the Xiling Bridge and built nearby a pavilion named " the Pavilion for Admiring the Talented " in memory of the talented girl. Later the tomb was destroyed. When Kangxi, the emperor of the Qing dynasty came to visit Hangzhou, he mentioned something about Su Xiaoxiao by chance. The officials in Zhejiang made an empty tomb for her immediately that night and it was destroyed again in 1966. The present tomb and pavilion was reconstructed in 2004 when Xiling Bridge was under renovation.
2. Qiu Jin and Her Tomb， Yu Chamber and Yu Yue， The Liuyi Spring
1）Qiu Jin and Her Tomb key points: the introduction of Qiu Jin; Qiu Jin’s tomb
(1) The introduction of Qiu Jin • Qiu Jin, also called Heroine from Lake Jian, was born in 1875 in Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province. She was a distinguished woman revolutionary in the late Qing Dynasty. In 1904 she went to Japan to study and took part in the revolutionary activities. In 1906 she went back to China and founded a newspaper " Chinese Woman" to enhance the woman's rights and spread the revolutionary ideas. In 1907 she went to take charge of Datong Institute in Shaoxing, and she also took active part in communicating the revolutionary party members in Jinhua and Langxi Cities. And later She organized Recovery Armies and prepared the Anti-Qing uprisings. The pity was the uprising failed at last and she was arrested and killed in her hometown at the age of 38. She was buried by the Xiling Bridge of the West Lake in accordance with her wish.
(2) Qiu Jin’s Tomb and statue • The foundation of the new tomb is two meters high stuck with cream-colored granite. On the right front of the tomb is the marble stone tablet inscribed with the original calligraphy of Dr. Sun Yat-sen to mourn for Qiu Jin. The upper line is "Eternal repose to Heroine from Lake Jian", the medium is " Woman Hero" and the lower is " Sun Wen". And its back is inscribed a long memorial article consisting of 722 characters by her best friends Xu Zihua and Wu Zhiying. • On the tomb stands Qiu Jin's white marble stone Stature which is 2.7 meters high. Today the tomb is the historical relics unit under the protection of provincial government.
2) Yu Chamber and Yu Yue • Key points： the introduction of Yu yue; Yu Chamber;
(1) The Introduction of Yu Yue • Yu Yue, also called Yu Quyuan, a native of Deqing County, Zhejing Province, was born in 1821 and died in 1907. In 1855, he took up the post of the Provincial Educational Commissioner in Henan and not soon after he was dismissed from his post. He then got tired of the official career and devoted himself to the academic research. Later he became a teacher in Suzhou, Shanghai and other cities. He came to Hangzhou and set up Zhejiang Public House in 1868. Since then he had been the president of You Zhu Society（诂精经舍） for 31 years. • You Zhu Society situated on the west end of the Bai Causeway with the Solitary Hill behind it and the West Lake in front of it. In You Zhu Society Yu Yue lived for more than ten year while giving lectures and writing books. Altogether he had completed over 250 volumes.
(2) Yu Chamber • Yu Chamber, a two-story Chinese style building, where Yu Yue once delivered lectures and wrote books, was constructed with funds raised by his students Xu Qi(Xu huanong徐花农) in 1878. Behind the building, there used to be a stone library, named " Quyuan Library"（曲园书藏）by himself. It was a place to store Chun Zai Tang Collections（春在堂全书）. Later the collections were removed to Beijing and the library was abandoned. But a stone tablet carved with the name of the library is now still kept in the Xiling Seals & Engravers' Society. • Before the Anti-Japanese War, Yu Chamber was once rebuilt into a three-story western style building. And after the war, it was rented and served as a restaurant. In 1949, it became a resident house. In 1959 the Solitary Hill was under a large scale of renovations. The enclosing wall of the mansion was torn down and the chamber was turned into a park. The three-story building at present was rebuilt in 1998 as Yu's memorial hall.
3) The Liuyi Spring Key points: the origin of Liuyi Spring; What does “Liuyi” refer to
(1) The origin of Liuyi Spring • The Liuyi Spring pool covers an area of 2 square meters (22 square feet). It is the place where Hui Qin, an eminent monk of the Northern Song Dynasty, used to preach, and it’s also the place Su Dongpo met Hui Qin through the introduction of their mutual friend, Ouyang Xiu, also known by his literary name Retired Scholar Liuyi. Liu Yi in Chinese means six ones. Su and Hui Qin often sampled tea and composed poems together, thus became friends. Four years after that, Su left Hangzhou whereas Ouyang passed away. In 1089, Su came to Hangzhou again to take up the post of prefect. He was very sad when he learnt that Hui Qin had also passed away. When he came to Hui Qin’s temple, he found spring water was seen to flow out from under his preaching desk. In memory of Ouyang, Su named the spring after Retired Scholar Liuyi.
(2) What doest Liuyi refer to • Retired Scholar Liuyi is the literary name of Ouyang Xiu, a great Northern Song Dynasty poet. His life consists of Liuyi, namely, “Six Ones”. In his book entitled The Life of Retired Scholar Liuyi, he said that he would collect one thousand texts of inscriptions ( on ancient bronzes and stone tablets surviving from China’s first three dynasties(Xia, Shang and Zhou);); and one wan(wan, a unit word, means ten thousand) copies of books; possess one Chinese zither(琴); play one game of Chinese chess every day; often have one pot of wine in hand; and he, an aged man, would enjoy all these wonderful things in his life .
3. Xiling Seal Engravers’ Society; Louwailou ( Building Beyond Building) Restaurant
1) The Xiling Seal Engravers’ Society • Key points: • (1) Briefing on Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society; • (2) Introduction on the garden of the society: • (3) Three main buildings of Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society
(1) Briefing on Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society • Key Points: • The origin of its name; • the aim of the society; • its founder and presidents
A. The origin of its name: • Xiling Seal-Engraver’s Society is noted throughout the country for its study of epigraphic art. As the site is near Xiling, it was named Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society. It was founded in 1913. From 1904, Wu Changshuo, Ding Ren (丁仁)，Wang Yi (王易)，Ye Weiming (叶为铭) and Wu Yin (吴隐) and other epigraphists bought a piece of land to build a building, thus Xiling Seal-Engravers’ was formally set up in 1913. • (From 1904 on, Wu Chjangshuo and other eminent epigraphists like Ding Ren (丁仁)，Wang Yi (王易)，Ye Weiming (叶为铭) and Wu Yin (吴隐) often met at Solitary Hill for academic discussions and research, and proposed a seal engravers’ society. After ten years of painstaking preparations, the society was formally set up in 1913, with the aim to “preserve seal-cutting and conduct research into art”, Wu was elected its first president.)
B. The aim of the society Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society was formally set up in 1913 with the aim of “to preserve seal-cutting and conduct research into art”.(保存金石，研究印学）
C. The founder and presidents of the society • The founders of the society are吴昌硕、丁仁、 叶为民、王易、吴隐 . • The first president is Wu Changshuo. Other presidents are 马衡、张宗祥、沙孟海、赵朴初、启功。
(2) Introduction on the garden of the society • Key points: • the characteristics of the garden buildings; • which style does it belong to?
A. The characteristics of the garden buildings • The Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society is also a nice traditional garden in southeast China. Situated along the hill, the whole garden creates a serene, agreeable atmosphere that mingles scenery with art. • Architecturally speaking, the society is surrounded by green tiles and white wall. From the viewpoint of its layout, all the buildings in the garden are built around the hill, creating a serene, agreeable environment that mingles scenery with art. In the garden, there are some well-known constructions consisting of one pagoda—Huayan pagoda, one stele-- the stele of the Taboo Names and Dates of Death, three buildings—Bamboo Camber, Cypress Hall and Four Shinging Hall, three statues---the statues of Dengsiru，Wuchangsuo and Dingjing, and four Springs-- the Seal Spring (印泉), the Leisure Spring (闲泉), the Literary Spring () and the Concentration Spring (潜泉).
B. Which style does it belong to? • The garden buildings of Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society and its layout present the outstanding art style of classical garden in south China.
(3) Huayan pagoda This is Huayan pagoda. It looks like a big painting brush erecting in the center of the garden, therefore becomes the landmark of the garden. It was set up in 1924 with the money raised by a member of the society Monk Hongshan.
(4) The stele of Sanlao • A. The origin of the stele • Kept in a stone house of Sanlao on the hill, is the stele of the Taboo Names and Dates of Death（《三老讳字忌日碑》）with a history of over 1900 years. The stele was unearthed at Kexing （客星）Hill in Yuyao County in 1852 during Qing Dynasty. “Sanlao” is the title for an official in charge of cultural and educational work. “Weizi” refers to the taboo name of the elders and “Jiri” refers to the dates of death of the elders.
B. The value of the stele • This is a stele recording the taboo names and dates of the death of Sanlao and other deceased. The character style of the epigraph is between seal character in Qin Dynasty （秦篆）and official script in Han Dynasty（汉隶）. According to scientific research, the stele was inscribed in Eastern Han Dynasty in 52 AD. The stele is 88 cm high and 45 cm wide. It separately records the names of Sanlao’s parents, his grandparents and his sons and daughters with 217 legible characters. It is not only the most treasured stone tablets dating back 1940 to the early Eastern Han Dynasty and a treasure work of art among the unearthed antiques of the country but also noted as “The No.1 Stele in Eastern China”. It provides an important reference for studying the origin and development of stone engraving and tomb inscriptions of China.
(5) Three main buildings of Xiling Seal-Engravers’ Society Key points: three main buildings; the construction background of the buildings;
A. Three main buildings Three main buildings are the Bamboo Chamber, the Cypress Hall and the Four-Shining Hall.
B. The construction background of the buildings • The Bamboo Chamber was put up by Poet Bai Juyi during the Tang Dynasty. When Bai Juyi was the governor of Hangzhou, he often took rest in the chamber after going sightseeing around the West Lake. • The Cypress Hall dates back 561 years to the Southern Song Dynasty. It was put up by a monk named zhiquan(志铨)。It is said that two Cypress tress were planted there as early as in the Northern and Southern Dynasties. One of the two trees withered away and became a fossil. When it was knocked, the fossil sounded like metal and stone. Therefore Zhiquan, the monk, put up a hall beside the tree and named it Cypress Hall.
Si Zhao Pavilion (The Four-Shining Hall) was founded in Song Dynasty in 1729 when Li Wei was in the charge of the province. Known as one of the eight scenes of the temporary imperial palace in the Qing Dynasty, the pavilion sits at the top of Solitary Hill with broad windows on the four sides. Picturesque scenery of the lake is visible from the building. Hills and pagodas are mirrored in the clear lake. So in 1671 the pavilion was named Si Zhao Pavilion, meaning "Reflecting the Clouds and the Peaks in all sides" by Kangxi, an emperor of the Qing Dynasty.