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Do Now. True or False? Correct the false statements. The first cloned animal was a tadpole. You inherit more from your father if you are a boy. Identical twins do NOT have the same DNA. All humans share 75% of their DNA. Objectives. SWBAT identify the parts of a nucleotide

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Do now
Do Now

  • True or False? Correct the false statements.

    • The first cloned animal was a tadpole.

    • You inherit more from your father if you are a boy.

    • Identical twins do NOT have the same DNA.

    • All humans share 75% of their DNA.


Objectives
Objectives

  • SWBAT identify the parts of a nucleotide

  • SWBAT label the different parts of a DNA molecule.


DNA

  • DNA stands for:

    • Deoxyribonucleic acid

  • DNA is located:

    • In the nucleus of cells

  • The function of DNA is to:

    • Tells the cells how to produce things that make you up (Blueprint)


Dna structure
DNA Structure

  • Nucleotide is made of:

    • 5 carbon sugar (Deoxyribose)

    • Phosphate Group

    • Nitrogen base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine)




Dna structure2
DNA Structure

  • DNA often is compared to a twisted ladder.

  • Rails of the ladder are represented by the alternating deoxyribose and phosphate.

  • The pairs of bases (cytosine–guanine or thymine–adenine) form the steps.


Base Pairs- Rungs of the ladder

-2 Strands of DNA form a helix


Orientation of dna anti parallel
Orientation of DNA- Anti Parallel

  • On the top rail, the strand is said to be oriented 5′ to 3′.

  • The strand on the bottom runs in the opposite direction and is oriented 3′ to 5′.


Do now 1 and 6 refer to the ends of dna
Do Now (#1 and 6 refer to the ends of DNA)


Objectives1
Objectives

  • 1. SWBAT identify the parts of a nucleotide

  • 2. SWBAT create their own strand of DNA using template sugar, phosphate, and bases.


Lab

  • PICK UP:

    • One sequence per group

    • One packet per group

    • 2 question worksheets

  • HANDING IN:

    • 1 DNA diagram

    • 2 Sets of questions.


A good way to study
A good way to study

  • http://www.dnai.org/timeline/index.html


Do now1
Do Now

  • Where is DNA located?

  • What is the role of DNA in the cell?


Objectives2
Objectives

  • 1. SWBAT read and understand the discovery of DNA by several scientists.

  • 2. SWBAT understand how viruses replicate and be able to apply this knowledge to a problem.


When was dna discovered
When was DNA discovered?

  • We are going to study the scientists who helped to discover DNA.

  • We are going to take turns reading around the room and taking notes.



Why do we care about bacterial transformation
Why do we care about bacterial transformation?

  • Genetic Research

  • Antibiotic Resistance


1928 fred griffith
1928 Fred Griffith -

  • Studied two strains of bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • Worked with two strains of bacteria: Rough Strain and Smooth Strain

  • S strain causes pneumonia and the R strain does not


Griffith cont
Griffith Cont.

  • S strain:

  • Heat killed S strain:

  • R Strain:

  • Heat killed S strain + R Strain:


1928 fred griffith1
1928 Fred Griffith -

  • Discovered that something from the heat killed wild type (smooth) bacteria was turning the mutant (rough) type bacteria into smooth.

  • Called it the transforming factor

  • Didn’t really know what it was


Let s talk a little about dna do now period 6
Let’s Talk a little about DNA.Do now period 6

  • What is DNA?

  • Where is DNA found?

  • What do scientists know about our DNA?

  • How do we apply this DNA technology?


Objectives3
Objectives

  • SWBAT list and identity the characteristics of viruses

  • SWBAT label a diagram of the life cycle of a virus

  • SWBAT explain Hershey and Chases experiment and it’s importance to the discovery of DNA


Avery
Avery

  • Identified the molecule that transformed the R strain of bacteria into the S strain

  • Concluded that when the S cells were killed, DNA was released

  • R bacteria incorporated this DNA into their cells and changed into S cells.

  • Many people did not believe that it was DNA, not protein that transformed genes


Viruses six characteristics of viruses
Viruses- Six Characteristics of Viruses

  • 1. Have their own genome (genetic make up) made of either DNA or RNA

  • 2. Does not have enzymes, ribosomes, or ATP

  • 3. Have external protein shells (capsids)


Viruses six characteristics of viruses1
Viruses- Six Characteristics of Viruses

  • 4. Infect only specific cells

  • 5. 2 life cycles (lytic and lysogenic)

    • Lytic – breaks out and spreads

    • Lysogenic- hangs around

  • 6. Smaller than bacteria


When a virus attacks a cell
When a virus attacks a cell…

  • Let’s try to put these in order….



Hershey and chase
Hershey and Chase

  • Used radioactive labeling to trace the DNA and protein

  • Concluded that the viral DNA was injected into the cell and provided the genetic information needed to produce new viruses


Hershey and chase1
Hershey and Chase

  • Radioactive Labeling:

    • Used radioactive phosphorus (32P) to identify DNA in the bacteriophages

    • Used radioactive sulfer (35S) to identify proteins in the bacteriophages


Hershey and chase2
Hershey and Chase

  • Tracking DNA

  • Radioactive bacteriophages infected bacteria cells

  • After review results found radioactive sulfur outside of bacteria cells and radioactive phosphorus inside bacteria cells



Do now2
Do Now

  • 1. What is a virus?

  • 2. Why is a virus NOT considered a living thing?

  • 3. What are the two types of life cycles of viruses? Briefly describe each.


Do now period 8
Do Now – Period 8

  • 1. Briefly describe Griffith’s experiment

  • 2. What did he conclude?


Molecular Genetics

Chapter 12


Dna structure3
DNA Structure

  • Levene discovered that DNA is made of nucleotides


Dna structure4
DNA Structure

  • Nucleotide is made of:

    • 5 carbon sugar (Deoxyribose)

    • Phosphate Group

    • Nitrogen base (adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine)




Do now3
Do Now

  • 1. Briefly describe hershey and chase’s experiment.

  • What did they conclude?


Do now4
Do Now

  • 1. Find the complementary sequence of DNA:

  • ATCGGATATAGC

  • 2. What bonds form between the sides of DNA?

  • 3. What type of sugar is in DNA?

  • 4. What does 3’ mean?


Dna structure6
DNA Structure

  • DNA often is compared to a twisted ladder.

  • Rails of the ladder are represented by the alternating deoxyribose and phosphate.

  • The pairs of bases (cytosine–guanine or thymine–adenine) form the steps.



Base Pairs- Rungs of the ladder

-2 Strands of DNA form a helix


Orientation of dna anti parallel1
Orientation of DNA- Anti Parallel

  • On the top rail, the strand is said to be oriented 5′ to 3′.

  • The strand on the bottom runs in the opposite direction and is oriented 3′ to 5′.


Do now 1 and 6 refer to the ends of dna1
Do Now (#1 and 6 refer to the ends of DNA)


Do now hershey and chase experiment
Do Now – Hershey and Chase Experiment

  • What did radioactive phosphorous indicate?

  • What did radioactive sulfur indicate?

  • What was the conclusion of this experiment?


Objectives4
Objectives

  • SWBAT explain what Chargaff, Franklin, and Watson/Crick discovered.

  • SWBAT create a timeline of the scientists that discovered DNA.

  • SWBAT label parts of the DNA molecule

  • SWBAT describe how a chromosome coils.


Erwin chargaff
Erwin Chargaff

  • Chargaff’s rule: C = G and T = A


Rosiland franklin
Rosiland Franklin

  • X-ray Diffraction use of photo 51

  • X-ray diffraction data helped solve the structure of DNA

  • Indicated that DNA was a double helix



Watson and crick
Watson and Crick

  • Built a model of the double helix that conformed to the others’ research

    • two outside strands consist of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules

    • cytosine and guanine bases pair to each other by three hydrogen bonds

    • thymine and adenine bases pair to each other by two hydrogen bonds


Think pair share
THINK-PAIR-SHARE

  • Create a timeline of all the scientists and what they discovered.


Chromosome structure
Chromosome Structure

  • DNA coils around histones (proteins) to form nucleosomes,

  • This coils to form chromatin fibers.

  • The chromatin fibers supercoil to form chromosomes that are visible in the metaphase stage of mitosis.


Do now5
Do Now

  • How do you think your DNA gets in every cell of your body? Explain.


Objectives5
Objectives

  • SWBAT define semiconservative replication, helicase, ligase, DNA polymerase, and replication.

  • SWBAT explain how DNA Replicates

  • SWBAT extract DNA out of a strawberry.


Semiconservative replication
Semiconservative Replication

  • Parental strands of DNA separate

  • Each strand serve as template

  • DNA molecules produced have one strand of parental DNA and one daughter strand


Steps to dna replication 1 unwinding
Steps to DNA Replication1. Unwinding

  • DNA helicase (enzyme) unwinds and unzips the DNA – breaking the hydrogen bonds between the strands

  • RNA primase adds a short segment of RNA, called an RNA primer, on each DNA strand.


Steps to dna replication 2 base pairing
Steps to DNA Replication2. Base Pairing

  • DNA polymerase (enzyme) adds complementary nucleotides to parent DNA strand

  • Only adds to 3’ end of new DNA strand


2 base pairing cont
2. Base Pairing (cont.)

  • Two daughter strands of DNA are made differently

    • Leading Strand- Built continuously with out breaks

    • Lagging Strand- makes several small fragments of DNA

      • Built discontinuously

      • Pieces are called Okazaki Fragments

      • Fragments are connected by DNA Ligase



Steps to dna replication 3 joining
Steps to DNA Replication3. Joining

  • DNA Polymerase removes RNA Primer and fills it in place with DNA nucleotides

  • DNA ligase links two sections


Do now6
Do Now

  • What is DNA replication?

  • Why is it called semiconservative?

  • What is DNA helicase?


Do now7
Do Now

  • Label the DNA Replication Diagram


Do now8
Do Now

  • Label the DNA strands.


Animations of dna replication
Animations of DNA Replication

  • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/molgenetics/dna-rna2.swf

  • http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAreplication.html

  • http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~johnson/teaching/genetics/animations/dna_replication.htm



Do now period 3 let s practice making an exact copy
Do Now – period 3Let’s practice making an exact copy!


Comparing dna replication in eukaryotes and prokaryotes
Comparing DNA Replication in Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes

  • Eukaryotic DNA unwinds in multiple areas as DNA is replicated.

  • In prokaryotes, the circular DNA strand is opened at one origin of replication.


Do now9
Do Now

  • Write down the steps of DNA replication.



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