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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:. 3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information

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slide1
This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information

3.c – Evaluate impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment

6.c – Identify and illustrate how changes in DNA cause mutations and evaluate the significance of these changes

6.d – Compare genetic variations observed in plants and animals

9.b – Compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration

slide2
This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

9.d – Analyze the flow of matter and energy through different trophic levels and between organisms and the physical environment

12.a – Analyze the flow of energy through various cycles including the carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and water cycles

12.d – Identify and illustrate that long-term survival of species is dependent on resource space and may be limited

12.e – Investigate and explain interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

13.a – Evaluate the significance of structural and physiological adaptations of plants to their environment

slide3
Previous Lesson

Origin and Evolution of Life

slide4
Question: According to scientists, what are the ages of the following events?
  • Homo sapiens arise
  • Lucy
  • Evolution of life on earth
  • Life first appears on earth
  • Earth formed
  • Universe formed
slide5
Evolutionary Times

Years Before Present

0.13 million Homo sapiens arise

3-4 million Lucy present

3.5 billion to present Evolution of all forms of life

3.5 billion Earliest known fossil bacteria

4.5 billion Formation of Earth

13.7 billion Origin of the universe

slide6
Question: After the Industrial Revolution in England, the tree bark changed from light to dark and the moth populations changed from predominantly light to dark. How would evolutionary theory explain this?

After pollution: 80% dark-colored phenotype

Original population: 10% dark-colored phenotype

Based on: Campbell, et al., Biology: Concepts & Connections, Benjamin Cummings

slide7
Evolution
  • Change in the genetic makeup of a population through time, sometimes leading to formation of new species
  • Natural selection by the environment determines which organisms will survive and reproduce
  • Natural selection (bird predation) favored dark moths after the trees became dark
slide8
Today’s Lesson

Agricultural Systems and Transgenic Organisms

slide9
Overview of Lesson
  • Humans before agriculture
  • Domestication and agriculture
  • Energy flow in agricultural systems
  • Productivity and technology
  • Genetic engineering
slide10
Out of Africa Theory: Our human ancestors evolved in Africa and then spread around the world

Based on: Diamond, J., Guns, Germs and Steel, Random House, 1997.

12 000 years ago humans homo sapiens were widely distributed
12,000 years ago, humans (Homo sapiens) were widely distributed

Based on: Smithsonian, October 1986

12 000 years ago agricultural systems did not exist and humans homo sapiens were hunter gatherers
12,000 years ago, agricultural systems did not exist and humans (Homo sapiens) were hunter-gatherers

Based on: Smithsonian, October 1986

humans used tools such as needles spears and clothes and lived in small groups
Humans used tools such as needles, spears and clothes, and livedin small groups

Based on: Smithsonian, October 1986

slide14
What made it possible to change from small groups to the large cities of today?

Photo courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

10,000 BC

Today

slide15
Large cities and highly advanced civilizations were only possible after we domesticated wild plants and animals and developed agricultural systems

Photo courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

slide16
Overview of Lesson
  • Prehistoric humans
  • Domestication and agriculture
  • Energy flow in agricultural systems
  • Productivity and technology
  • Genetic engineering
slide17
Domestication

Domestication process began about 12,000 years ago

A domesticated plant or animal is modified from its wild ancestors for use by humans

slide18
Early domestication was unintentional:

seeds brought back by hunter-gatherers

foraging in the wild grew by accident in

latrines and garbage dumps

Later domestication was conscious:

scientists planted many different seeds,

selected the best progeny and planted their seeds

changes in wheat through domestication
Changes in wheat through domestication

Wild

form

Based on: Scientific American, September 13, 1976

slide20
Dates (BC) and Places of First Evidence for Domesticationfrom Diamond, J., Guns, Germs and Steel, Random House, 1997

Dog 10,000 BC SW. Asia,China, North America

Sheep 8,000 BC SW. Asia

Goat 8,000 BC SW. Asia

Pig 8,000 BC China, SW. Asia

Cow 6,000 BC SW. Asia, India, North Africa

Horse 4,000 BC Ukraine

Donkey 4,000 BC Egypt

slide21
Dates (BC) and Places of First Evidence for Domesticationfrom Diamond, J., Guns, Germs and Steel, Random House, 1997

Wheat, Pea, Olive 8,500 BC SW. Asia

Rice, Millet 7,500 BC China

Sorghum 5,000 BC Sahel

Corn, Beans, Squash 3,500 BC Mesoamerica

Potato 3,500 BC Andes

Sunflower 2,500 BC Eastern U.S.

movement of agricultural crops from the fertile crescent
Movement of agricultural cropsfrom the Fertile Crescent

From: New York Times, November 18, 1997

highly advanced civilizations were present by 2 000 4 000 bc
Highly advanced civilizations were present by 2,000 - 4,000 BC

Based on: National Geographic, September, 1998

slide24
Overview of Lesson
  • Prehistoric humans
  • Domestication and agriculture
  • Energy flow in agricultural systems
  • Productivity and technology
  • Genetic engineering
slide25
There are two types of agricultural systems that make the energy of the sun available as food to humans

Photos courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

Sun

Grass

Herbivore

Man

Sun

Grain Crop

Man

slide26
All agricultural systems are based on plants converting the energy of the sun to the energy of sugar through the process of photosynthesis

energy of the sun + carbon dioxide + water

energy of sugar + oxygen

slide27
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Based on: Campbell, et al., Biology: Concepts & Connections, Benjamin Cummings

slide28
Energy is lost due to respiration of plants and animals

energy of sugar + oxygen

energy of ATP + carbon dioxide + water

Energy of ATP is then used to stay alive

relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Based on: Campbell et al., Biology: Concepts and Connections, Benjamin Cummings

energy flow in two types of agricultural systems
Energy flow in two types of agricultural systems

Based on: Scientific American, September 1976

slide31
Overview of Lesson
  • Prehistoric humans
  • Domestication and agriculture
  • Energy flow in agricultural systems
  • Productivity and technology
  • Genetic engineering
growth in agricultural productivity
Growth in Agricultural Productivity

From: : Scientific American, February, 1983

slide33
Harvesting Technology

Photos courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

slide34
Irrigation Technology

Based on: Scientific American, February 1983

Photos courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

domestication technology
PesticideTechnologyDomesticationTechnology

Photo courtesy of Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

Photo courtesy of Texas Department of Transportation

slide38
Overview of Lesson
  • Prehistoric humans
  • Domestication and agriculture
  • Energy flow in agricultural systems
  • Productivity and technology
  • Genetic engineering
slide39
Genetic Engineering

Take a gene (directing synthesis of a desired protein) from an animal or plant and insert it into an agricultural plant

The engineered agricultural plant makes the protein specified by the inserted gene. Large quantities of the protein can be produced by growing large crops of the engineered plant

slide40
From: Time, May 26, 2003

Agricultural plants have been modified to contain human genes to produce human proteins to fight human disease

slide41
From: Time, May 26, 2003

Many agricultural plants are undergoing genetic engineering to fight pests

slide42
Critics have named crops with human genes “Pharmageddon.” Environmentalists are worried that unnaturally combined genes may spread like “genetic kudzu.”Foods with unnatural proteins are called “Frankenfood.” People are worried about buying foods in the grocery store that are genetically engineered to produce their own pesticides.

From: Time, November 29, 1999

slide43
This corn contained a protein that provides resistance to pests and was only approved for animal foods
slide44
2005 GM strain contaminating traditional canola Canada, Australia
  • 2009 GM genes escape to wild corn Mexico
  • 2009 crops tested for GM cross contamination in Australia
  • 2009 Mass GM corn crop failure in South Africa
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