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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:. 3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information

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slide1

This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information

3.c – Evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment

11.b – Investigate and identify how organisms respond to external stimuli

11.c – Analyze the importance of nutrition and environmental conditions on physical exercise and health

11.d – Summarize the role of microorganisms in maintaining and disrupting equilibrium and diseases in plants and animals and decay in an ecosystem

slide2

This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

12.b – Interpret interactions among organisms exhibiting predation, parasitism, commensalisms, and mutualism

12.e – Investigate and explain the interactions in an ecosystem including food chains, food webs, and food pyramids

slide5

Global

Water Cycle

15 cu km

110 cu km / yr

70 cu km / yr

40 cu km / yr

40 cu km / yr

100 cu km

15,000,000 cu km

slide7

Temperature and precipitation predict the presence of biomes

Based on: Mader, S., Inquiry into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide8

Question: Why will water potentially become a critical limiting resource to Texas in the next 30 years?

slide11

Overview of Lesson

  • What is acid rain?
  • What causes acid rain in North
  • America?
  • What are the effects of acid rain
  • on lakes?
  • How can we combat acid rain?
  • Is acid rain a problem in Texas?
slide12

Controversies

Over Acid Rain

slide13

pH of Rain

  • Natural Rain: Water in rain combines
  • with carbon dioxide to form carbonic
  • acid (a weak acid that causes normal
  • rain to be slightly acidic or below a
  • pH of 7)
  • Acid Rain: Sulfur and nitrogen
  • oxides from the burning of fossil
  • fuels combine with water in rain to
  • form sulfuric and nitric acids
  • (strong acids that cause rain to have
  • pH below 5.6 or be acid rain)
slide14

pH Scale

Acid rain is rain with a pH below 5.6

Based on: Campbell et al., Biology: Concepts and Connections, Benjamin Cummings

slide15

Overview of Lesson

  • What is acid rain?
  • What causes acid rain in North
  • America?
  • What are the effects of acid rain
  • on lakes?
  • How can we combat acid rain?
  • Is acid rain a problem in Texas?
slide16

Changes in pH of rain from 1955 to 1979 over eastern U.S.

From: Haines, Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, November 1981

slide17

Air movement patterns across U.S.

Based on: Haines,Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, November 1981

slide18

Sulfur dioxide emissions in

the eastern U.S.

Based on: Driscoll et al., 2001. BioScience 51.

slide19

Nitrogen oxide emissions in eastern U.S.

Based on: Driscoll et al., 2001. BioScience 51.

increase in stack height with time
Increase in stack height with time

Based on: Patrick et al., Science Vol. 211, 30 January 1981

slide22

High smoke stacks inject sulfur and nitrogen emissions into upper atmosphere

Photo courtesy of Texas Park and Wildlife Department

slide24

Overview of Lesson

  • What is acid rain?
  • What causes acid rain in North
  • America?
  • What are the effects of acid rain
  • on lakes?
  • How can we combat acid rain?
  • Is acid rain a problem in Texas?
slide25

Fisheries biologists were the first to detect effects of acid rain on the biotic components of lakes

slide26

Lakes in N.Y.

  • Surveys of lakes in
  • 1930’s and 1970’s
  • pH of lakes declined
  • number of fishless
  • lakes increased
  • Hundreds of lakes
  • eventually had no fish
slide27

Ages of fish in acidified lakes of Canada

  • only older fish
  • were present
  • fish had not
  • spawned for
  • years

Based on: Harvey, Acid Rain / Fisheries, AFS, 1982

slide28

Number of fish species vs pH of lake

Based on: Driscoll et al., 2001. BioScience, 51.

slide29

So how did lakes become fishless without biologists knowing it?

  • Gamefish are not killed directly
  • by acid rain
  • Declines in pH first affect the
  • reproduction of fish and
  • invertebrates in the food chain
  • Gamefish reproduction stops
  • and food chain collapses,
  • eventually leading to loss of all fish
slide30

Overview of Lesson

  • What is acid rain?
  • What causes acid rain in North
  • America?
  • What are the effects of acid rain
  • on lakes?
  • How can we combat acid rain?
  • Is acid rain a problem in Texas?
slide31

Liming of lakes

One of the most common ways to combat the effects of acid rain in lakes

Basic material which neutralizes the acidity of a solution and raises pH

slide32

Effects of liming on pH are temporary and only treat the symptoms

Based on: Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 20, 1978, p. 852

slide33

In 1990, Congress amended the Clean Air Act to require polluters (electric companies) to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide

Photo courtesy of Texas Park and Wildlife Department

slide34

Technology to remove sulfur dioxide is effective and sulfate deposition has declined. But would lakes respond?

Based on: Driscoll et al., 2001. BioScience, 51.

slide35

Studies in Europe and North America

  • In the European
  • lakes, the acidity has
  • declined
  • But some lakes in
  • North America (like
  • Adirondacks) have
  • not had a decline in
  • acidity

Based on: Stoddard, et al., Nature ,Vol. 401, 7 Oct. 1999

slide36

Heart Lake in the Adirondacks is still suffering from the effects of acid rain.

It has lost its natural buffering capacity.

From U.S. News & World Report, November 1, 1999

Prolonged exposure to acid rain may have leached calcium and magnesium from the soils. It may take decades to recover.

slide37

Overview of Lesson

  • What is acid rain?
  • What causes acid rain in North
  • America?
  • What are the effects of acid rain
  • on lakes?
  • How can we combat acid rain?
  • Is acid rain a problem in Texas?