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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:. 3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations 3.e – Evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events 4.a – Identify the parts of a cell

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slide1

This lesson will increase your knowledge of concepts covered in the following TEKS for biology:

3.a – Analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations

3.e – Evaluate models according to their adequacy in representing biological objects or events

4.a – Identify the parts of a cell

4.b – Investigate and identify cellular processes

5.a – Compare cells from different parts of plants

9.a – Compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

9.b – Compare the energy flow in photosynthesis to the energy flow in cellular respiration

slide2

9.c – Investigate and identify the effects of enzymes on food molecules

10.a – Interpret the functions of systems in organisms

10.b – Compare the interrelationship of organ systems to each other and to the body as a whole

11.c – Analyze the importance of nutrition, environmental conditions, and physical exercise on health

slide4

Humans are biological machines, made out of about 2 million types of proteins and running on the energy of ATP converted from glucose and fats

major parts of the machine
Major Parts of the Machine

Based on: Starr, C. Biology: Concepts and Applications, Brooks/Cole

food, water intake

oxygen intake

elimination of carbon dioxide

Digestive System

Respiratory System

nutrients,

water,

salts

oxygen

carbon

dioxide

Circulatory System

Urinary System

water

solutes

elimination

of food

residues

rapid transport

to and from all

living cells

elimination of

excess water

salts, wastes

slide6

Overview of Lesson

  • ATP and cellular respiration
  • Food molecules
  • Getting food to the cells
  • Digestive process
  • Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
cellular respiration in mitochondria of cells c 6 h 12 o 6 energy o 2 adp p atp energy co 2 h 2 o
Cellular Respiration(in mitochondria of cells)C6H12O6(energy) + O2 + ADP + PATP (energy) + CO2 + H2O
slide8

All cells have mitochondria for cellular respiration and production of ATP

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide9

Energy for contraction of muscle is supplied by ATP

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide10

Summary of ATP-ADP cycle

Muscle contraction uses ATP

A-P-P-P

A-P-P

P

ATP is a high energy molecule

ADP is a low energy molecule

Cellular respiration in mitochondria converts ADP back to ATP

slide11

Overview of Lesson

  • ATP and cellular respiration
  • Food molecules
  • Getting food to the cells
  • Digestive process
  • Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
slide12

Three Types of Food Molecules

  • Protein - chains of amino acids
  • Fat - glycerol bonded to three fatty
  • acids
  • Carbohydrates – individual or chains
  • of simple sugar units
slide13

Protein Synthesis

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide14

Fat Synthesis

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide15

Disaccharide Synthesis

Maltose

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide16

Polysaccharide Synthesis

Starch

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide17

Polysaccharide Synthesis

Glycogen

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide18

Polysaccharide Synthesis

Cellulose

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

Humans do not produce an enzyme to digest cellulose

slide19

Overview of Lesson

  • ATP and cellular respiration
  • Food molecules
  • Getting food to the cells
  • Digestive process
  • Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
slide20

Digestive System

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide21

Food

Digestive Tract

  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Rectum
  • Anus

Digested food molecules

Hepatic Portal Vein

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

Liver

Waste

Circulatory System

Body Cells

slide22

Absorption of Food Molecules

Based on Raven et al., Biology, McGraw-Hill

Food molecules must be small enough to move into capillaries

slide23

Circulatory System

Digested food molecules move from the small intestine into the blood and then to the liver. From the liver the molecules go into the circulatory system to travel to the heart and then the body cells.

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide24

Capillary System

Arterial End

Venous End

Based on: Biology: Campbell, et al., Concepts and Connections, Benjamin Cummings

slide25

Capillary System

Arterial End

Venous End

Based on: Mader, S. Inquiry Into Life, McGraw-Hill

slide26

Why would the body cells need glucose and oxygen?

Why would the body cells need amino acids?

Cellular Needs

slide27

Overview of Lesson

  • ATP and cellular respiration
  • Food molecules
  • Getting food to the cells
  • Digestive process
  • Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
slide28

Digestive System

Mouth

Salivary Glands

Esophagus

Stomach

Gastric Glands

Pancreas

Liver

Small Intestine

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

slide29

Accessory Structures

Salivary glands produces amylase

Gastric glands produce HCl and pepsin

Pancreas produces amylase, trypsin,

lipase

Liver produces bile

Small intestine produces maltase

and peptidase

slide30

Digestion of Protein

Mechanical but no digestion of protein

HCl and Pepsin from gastric glands converts some protein into shorter polypeptides

Trypsin from pancreas converts remaining protein into shorter polypeptides

Amino acids

Peptidase from small intestine converts short polypeptides into amino acids

slide31

Digestion of Fat

No digestion of fat

No digestion of fat

Bile from liver emulsifies fat

to fat droplets

Fatty acids &

glycerol

Lipase from pancreas

converts fat droplets to

fatty acids and glycerol

slide32

Digestion of Starch

Amylase from salivary glands

converts some starch to

maltose

No digestion of starch

Amylase from pancreas

converts starch to maltose

Glucose

Maltase from small intestine

converts maltose to glucose

slide33

Overview of Lesson

  • ATP and cellular respiration
  • Food molecules
  • Getting food to the cells
  • Digestive process
  • Anorexia, bulimia, binge eating
slide34

Anorexia nervosa- inappropriate body image leading to a deprivation of the body of nutrients by refusal to eatBulimia nervosa- compulsive eating binges followed by prevention of weight gainBinge eating- uncontrolled eating oflarge amount of food in a short time, 2x weekly, no purging

3 Eating Disorders

slide35

1st National Survey 2007

Anorexia 0.9% women, 0.3% menBulimia 1.5% women 0.5% menNewly recognized, first stats:Binge eating 3.5% women, 2% menRelated to other addictive disorders and obesity, BMI > 40, genetic linkLess than half received treatment

slide36

Digestive System

Mouth

Esophagus

Stomach

Anorexia & bulimia interfere with movement of food molecules into the blood

X

Small Intestine

molecules

X

Large Intestine

dangers of eating disorders
Dangers of Eating Disorders
  • Affect up to 10 million Americans
  • 90% of eating disorders occur in girls or women, adolescence, mid age
  • These do occur in men
  • Anorexia highest death rate of any psychological disorder
  • Without treatment, 20% of anorexia cases result in death
  • Kills 1000s of Americans each year
dangers of binge eating
Dangers of Binge Eating
  • Links to obesity, severe obesity
  • Health issues associated with obesity
  • Toll on social life
  • Psychological toll
  • Treatment psychological, medications, surgical procedures
  • Public health issue, obesity epidemic
slide43

Next Lesson

Alcohol’s Effects on the Heart and Liver

cellular respiration in mitochondria of cells c 6 h 12 o 6 energy o 2 adp p atp energy co 2 h 2 o1
Cellular Respiration(in mitochondria of cells)C6H12O6(energy) + O2 + ADP + PATP (energy) + CO2 + H2O
slide45

What are proteins made of?

Proteins are coiled chains of amino acids, usually a few hundred amino acids long

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

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