Compromise of 1850 • Proposed by Henry Clay, 29 Jan 1850 • California enters Union as a free state • Territory disputed by Texas and New Mexico was given to New Mexico • Slave trade was banned in Washington, DC. • Stricter Fugitive Slave Laws • South received the remainder of the Mexican Cession • Became the territories of New Mexico and Utah and were open to slavery and popular sovereignty.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin • AKA Life Among the Lowly • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe 1852 • Anti-slavery novel that changed how Americans viewed slavery • Demanded that the United States deliver on the promise of freedom and equality • Galvanized the abolition movement • Contributed to the outbreak of the Civil War • Sold 10,000 copies in the United States in its first week and 300,000 in the first year
"So you are the little woman who wrote the book that started this great war!" A. Lincoln 1862
Harriet Tubman 1820-1913 Escaped slave herself who risked her life many times leading other escaped slaves along the Underground Railroad “Moses of her People” Acted as a spy for the Union Army
Frederick Douglass 1818-1895 From slave to social reformer
Died in office after participating in ceremonies at the Washington Monument on a hot July 4th day
AKA “Fainting Frank” Presided over the turmoil in Kansas
Kansas-Nebraska Act • Proposed by Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois • Passed by Congress in May 1854 • Allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves (Popular Sovereignty) whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. • Repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.
Cont. • Infuriated many in the North who considered the Missouri Compromise to be a long-standing binding agreement. • In the pro-slavery South it was strongly supported
Stephen Douglas AKA “The Little Giant”
Cont. • Pro-slavery and anti-slavery supporters rushed in to settle Kansas to affect the outcome of the first election • Pro-slavery settlers carried the election but were charged with fraud by anti-slavery settlers, and the results were not accepted by them. • The anti-slavery settlers held another election, however pro-slavery settlers refused to vote • Resulted in the establishment of two opposing legislatures within the Kansas territory.
Lecompton Constitution • Pro-slavery state constitution of Kansas • Named after the town in which the document was written
Topeka Constitution • Anti-slavery constitution of Kansas • Written by the “Free Staters” who opposed slavery
“Bleeding Kansas” • Nickname given to Kansas due to amount of violence over slavery issues
John Brown’s Holy War • Militant abolitionist • Advocated and practiced armed insurrection against slavery • In Kansas Territory, he became the leader of antislavery guerillas • Pottawatomie Massacre, May 24 and 25, 1856 • Brown and his sons attack and kill 5 pro-slavery men
Brooks-Sumner Incident • May 22, 1856 • South Carolina Representative Preston S. Brooks entered the chamber to avenge the insults of Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner • Sumner was rendered unconscious • Signaled the end of an era of compromise
Franklin Pierce • Supported pro-slavery settlers • Sent in Federal troops to stop the violence and disperse the anti-slavery legislature. • Another election was called with pro-slavery supporters winning • They were charged with election fraud. • Congress did not recognize the constitution adopted by the pro-slavery settlers and Kansas was not allowed to become a state.
Cont. • Eventually anti-slavery settlers outnumbered pro-slavery settlers • A new constitution was drawn up • January 29, 1861, just before the start of the Civil War: • Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state.
Dred Scott Decision • Slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri • Scott had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. • March 1857, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, declared that all blacks, slaves as well as free, were not and could never become citizens of the United States • Court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, thus permitting slavery in all of the country's territories.
Dred Scott 1795-1858
Chief Justice Roger Taney “because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and therefore had no right to sue.” "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect; and that the negro might justly and lawfully be reduced to slavery for his benefit. He was bought and sold and treated as an ordinary article of merchandise and traffic, whenever profit could be made by it."
National Reaction • Increased resentment of abolitionists • Frederick Douglass, found a bright side to the decision and announced: • “My hopes were never brighter than now." • The decision would bring slavery to the attention of the nation and was a step toward slavery's ultimate destruction.
Raid on Harper’s Ferry • October 16, 1859 • Location of a Federal arsenal in Virginia • Plan of John Brown to capture the arsenal and lead an army of slaves across the South • Brown seized the federal arsenal, killing seven people, and injuring ten or more • The slaves, unlike what Brown predicted, didn't rebel, and he and his followers were captured by the US Marines (Led by Robert E. Lee)
Cont. • Brown was convicted of murder and treason and was hanged.
Election of 1856 • James Buchanan: Democrat, warned that the Republicans were extremists who would lead the country into civil war. • John C. Fremont: Newly formed Republican Party, condemned the Kansas-Nebraska Act and expansion of slavery • Millard Fillmore: Know Nothing Party, focused on anti-immigration issues
John C. Fremont 1st Republican candidate for president Free Soil, Free Men, and Fremont
Lincoln-Douglas Debates • Series of debates in 1858 spanning 4 months over election to the Senate from Illinois • Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas • Republican candidate A. Lincoln
Debate cont. • Douglas's strategy in the debates: • Picture Lincoln as a fanatical "Black Republican" whose goal was to incite civil war • Emancipate the slaves • Make blacks the social and political equals of whites. • Lincoln denied that he was a radical • He supported the Fugitive Slave Law and opposed any interference with slavery in the states where it already existed.
Debate Cont. • When election time comes, people of Illinois did not get to vote • State legislature chose the winner, Douglas is reelected • Sends Lincoln into the national spotlight and makes him a serious republican candidate for 1860 presidential election.
Election of 1860 • Republican: Abraham Lincoln (IL) • Democrats broke into two parties: • Northern Democrats: Stephen Douglas (IL) • Southern Democrats: John Breckenridge (Proslavery from KY also current VP) • Constitutional Union Party: John Bell (TN)