CH. 14 SECTIONAL CRISIS PRELUDE TO CIVIL WAR
SEC. I COMPROMISE OF 1850 • MEXICAN CESSION • Issue of slavery not resolved by Constitution; so a problem each time territory is added to US a. N- land for small farmers; S – land for plantations/slavery • MO Compromise 1820 – brief settlement for land acquired by Louisiana Purchase • CA and NM Territories south of 36 degree line; now what? • Wilmot Proviso – amendment to a spending bill for war- called for a ban on slavery in the lands acquired from MX; passed House, not Senate a. First issue purely sectional vote b. Southern Whigs joined S. Democrats against it
B. ELECTION OF 1848 • Polk in ill health, does not run • Democrats nominated Lewis Cass (MI) a. Popular sovereignty – allow people of territory to vote • New political parties a. Liberty – anti-slavery, seen as radical, no compromise b. Free-Soil – slavery can stay where it already exists; but no expansion of slavery into new territories (CA & NM) Not an abolitionist party • Whig party – chooses another military hero w/no position on issue of slavery; Zachary Taylor (who also dies in office)
ELECTION OF 1848 Democrat: L. Cass - 127 elec votes; Whig: Z. Taylor - 163 elect Free Soil: M. Van Buren- 0 electoral votes • Taylor promotes admission of CA as free state, settlers are gold diggers, not slaveholders • Southerners feared NM would also come in as free; MX had previously outlawed slavery; Calhoun proposes convention to discuss the northern aggression, secession?
C. COMPROMISE OF 1850 • Sen. Henry Clay tries to work a mega compromise bill: a. CA would be admitted as a free state b. NM Terr (inc AZ) to decide by pop sov c. NM get disputed land & US pay TX debts d. Slave trade would end in District of Columbia e. South would have stronger fugitive slave law • Debate cont’d for 7 months….. a. Elder statesmen of Congress urged solution John Calhoun Henry Clay
COMPROMISE • New Leaders reached compromise – S. Douglas (IL), J. Davis (MS) & W. Seward (NY) a. Pres. Taylor died in office; succeeded by Fillmore, who supported compromise b. Sen. Douglas introduced the parts separately for vote, all passed
SALMON P. CHASE, senator (OH) & judge “The question of slavery in the territories has been avoided. It has not been settled.”
D. FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW 1. Fugitive Slave Law most controversial a. Prof slave catchers seized Afr Am in the N b. 9 northern states passed laws to not cooperate w/ federal recapture efforts 1842-1850. c. New law supported slave owners; fugitives could not testify & penalties on whites who asst’d slaves d. 30,000-40,000 African Am fled to Canada 2. Violence – 1851 and 1854 incidents in Boston where mobs tried to free captured African Americans
SEC. II POLITICAL UPHEAVAL 1852-56 • ELECTION OF 1852 Whig: Gen. W. Scott (42) Dem: F. Pierce (254) Free Soil: Hale (0) took votes from Whig Party Whigs tried to promote other issues – tariff, bank, internal… but public not interested, Democ focused on expansion, not slavery
B. KANSAS – NEBRASKA ACT 1854 • Ostend Manifesto 1854– Pres. Pierce attempted to buy Cuba from Spain for $130 million….documents leaked from Belg; Northerners were angry at the conspiracy to extend slavery; part of plan to expand US commerce/democ in W. Hemis. • Young America movement – focus on Western Hemisphere a. Wm Walker – 3 attempts to invade Nicaragua 1844-57 b. Commodore Matthew Perry – traveled to Japan, agreed to a commercial treaty
3. KANSAS – NEBRASKA ACT, 1854 a. Settlers wanted land opened west of MO (ok to move Native Americans from Great Plains) b. Need for transcontinental RR to connect to West (Chicago favored by N; St. Louis or New Orleans by S) c. Bill sponsored by Senator S. Douglas, Illinois senator, who had hopes for 1860 presidential run
KS-NEB ACT • Douglas’ proposal to get Southerners to agree: a. slavery to be determined by popular sovereignty b. Area divided into 2 territories: NE & KS (more likely slave) • Passed in 1854; full support of South & some N. Democrats • Caused outcry in North – it repealed Missouri Compromise (1820) a. 300 anti-Nebraska rallies in the North b. Led to creation of Republican Party – anti NE Whigs & Dem 8. Nov. 1854 Congressional elections – Repubs won maj in House
C. BLEEDING KANSAS • Most settlers to KS were “border ruffians” from Missouri; pro-slavery towns – Leavenworth, Atchison, Lecompton • New England Emigrant Aid Society – L. Beecher’s org to send anti-slavery emigrants to KS; Lawrence, Topeka & Man. a. “Beecher’s Bibles” term for rifles that arrived in boxes marked BOOKS. • Bleeding Kansas – violence in Kansas 1856-1858 a. Wakarusa War – Dec. 1, 1855 – Missourians attacked Lawrence b. Sacking of Lawrence – May 21, 1856 – Missourians and William Quantrill set fire to Free State Hotel and destroyed two printing presses
BLEEDING KS CONT. • Pottawatomie Massacre – May 24, 1856 – John Brown and abolitionists hacked 5 proslavery settlers near Pottawatomie Creek. d. Battle of Black Jack -June 2, 1856 – Brown led attack on a group of Missourians in KS
BLEEDING KANSAS JOHN BROWN, ABOLITIONIST LAWRENCE, KS 1856 POTTAWATTOMIE CREEK MASSACRE
4 CONSTITUTIONS IN KS • Constitutional Controversy a. Topeka Const – Nov. 11, 1855 – outlaw slavery & exclude African Americans from KS. Not accepted by Congress b. Lecompton Const – Nov.7, 1857 – allow slavery by vote; boycotted by Free Staters & pro-slavery as it was changed; presented to Congress, rejected c. Leavenworth Const – May 18, 1858 – no slavery, included women’s rights; US Congress refused it d. Wyandotte Const – Oct. 4, 1859 – outlawed slavery, adopted by people; and Congress admitted KS on Jan 29, 1861
D. NEW POLITICAL PARTIES • 1849 – Know-Nothing Party a. Opposed immigrants, esp Irish-Catholic, younger workers b. Propaganda that foreign agents would take over c. Goal – lengthen time for immigrants to become citizens d. Northern support as anti-KS-NE Act e. 1854 won state offices in MA, PA, TX, KY • 1854 - Republican party a. Former Whigs & Free-Soilers, anti-KS-NE Act b. Pushed economics – opportunities lost if territories open to slavery in the West – unfair competition; tariff & transport.
VIOLENCE IN THE SENATE 1856 • May 1856 – Senator Charles Sumner (Mass) speech – “The Crime Against Kansas” – accused southerners of causing the violence in KS, particularly Sen. Butler of SC. a. Butler’s nephew, Rep. Brooks, incensed by speech b. Went to Sumner’s office, confronted him & hit him numerous times over the head w/ his cane c. Sumner collapsed, bleeding, unconscious; could not return to Senate for 4 years d. Brooks was censured by House, but hero in the South
E. ELECTION OF 1856 Rep: John Fremont - 114 elect; Dem: James Buchanan (174) American Party (KN) – Millard Fillmore Rising republican party caused fear in Democrats
SEC. III HOUSE DIVIDED 1857-60 • CULTURAL SECTIONALISM • Literature was divided a. Poe and Simms wrote proslavery verse b. Melville, Emerson & Thoreau – antislavery prose c. Harriet B. Stowe – Uncle Tom’s Cabin, 1852 cruel overseer Simon Legree, and the problems of slaves on the plantation – children sold, attempts to runaway…also dramatized by theater companies. Lincoln “So you are the little lady that has brought this great war.”
B. DRED SCOTT DECISION- JAN. 1858 • Dred Scott was a slave to Dr. Emerson, an army surgeon, who took his slave from Missouri into Illinois, a free state. • Dr. Emerson died in 1846 & his widow “rented” out Scott • Scott sued Mrs. Emerson on the grounds that living in a free state made him free – Mo circuit court agreed, but John Emerson, widow’s brother, claimed ownership and filed a claim in the MO supreme court which reversed the earlier. 4. Scott sued in federal court & was heard by the Supreme Court – Chief Justice Taney wrote majority decision, a defeat for antislavery.
DRED SCOTT…. a. Because Dred Scott was a slave, he was property not a citizen, therefore had no right to sue in federal court; b. The 5th Amendment guarantees right to property will not be denied by the federal govt w/o compensation c. Congress does not have the authority to deprive citizens of property; therefore Missouri Compromise was unconstitut’l
C. ILLINOIS SENATE RACE • 1858 Senate race in Illinois a. Dem – Stephen Douglas, incumbent b. Rep - Abraham Lincoln, IL legis, one term in House • Series of debates across the state attended by thousands that resulted in national attention • Positions a. Douglas – opposed citizenship, govt for whites, Freeport Doctrine – slavery could not exist in terr w/o legislation b. Lincoln – slavery morally wrong, not an abolitionist; but should have basic rights (or could be denied to others) Also believed slavery took away opportunities for laborers
D. HARPERS FERRY 1859 • Supported financially by eastern abolitionists, planned raid on federal arsenal in VA; arm slaves for a revolt • Oct. 16th he & 18 men attacked, but citizens, the militia & US army (commanded by Robert E. Lee) soon arrived. • 10 men killed, Brown surrounded, surrendered. • Tried, convicted of treason, sentenced to be hanged • Urged to plead guilty by reason of insanity, but refused • Became martyr for the cause of abolition • Southerners believed the Republican party put him up to it and advocated reopening the slave trade
E. ELECTION OF 1860 • Rep: Abraham Lincoln (IL) 1, 865,593 180 • S. Dem: JC Breckinridge (KY) 848,356 72 • Const Union: John Bell (TN) 592,906 39 • N. Dem: Stephen Douglas (IL) 1, 382, 713 12 Dem split over popular sovereignty, ex-whigs formed Const Union party with no mention of slavery, Republicans focused on economic issues – tariff, internal imp, RR & a homestead bill. Lincoln chosen because of mod position & obscurity. How did Douglas receive so few electoral votes? Election of Lincoln considered the last straw for the South, who firmly believed the Republican president would end slavery.