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EVOLUTION. ZOOLOGY Chapter 4. Charles Darwin 1809-1882. Question for Thought. Earth has millions of other kinds of organisms of every imaginable shape, size, and habitat. This variety of living things is called biological diversity . How did all these different organisms arise?

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  2. Charles Darwin 1809-1882

  3. Question for Thought • Earth has millions of other kinds of organisms of every imaginable shape, size, and habitat. This variety of living things is called biological diversity. How did all these different organisms arise? • How are they related?

  4. In your own words, describe what YOU think the theory of evolution means…

  5. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution • Evolution refers to a change over time. Organic Evolution is the process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. • A scientific theory is a well-supported testable explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world.

  6. What is a species? Populations in which genes are exchanged through interbreeding • What is speciation? The process of developing new species.

  7. How do you think Darwin came up with his theory?(He did not “Google” it!)

  8. James Hutton: 1795 Theory of Geological change Charles Lyell: Book: Principles of Geography Jean Baptist Lamarck: Tendency toward Perfection (Giraffe necks) Ideas from other scientists that shaped Darwin’s Thinking

  9. Voyage of the Beagle

  10. Voyage of Beagle • Dates: February 12th, 1831 • Captain: Charles Darwin • Ship: H.M.S. Beagle • Destination: Voyage around the world. • Findings: evidence to propose a revolutionary hypothesis about how life changes over time

  11. Darwin visited Argentina and Australia which had similar grassland ecosystems. those grasslands were inhabited by very different animals. neither Argentina nor Australia was home to the sorts of animals that lived in European grasslands. Patterns of Diversity

  12. Darwin posed challenging questions. Why were there no rabbits in Australia, despite the presence of habitats that seemed perfect for them? Why were there no kangaroos in England? Patterns of Diversity

  13. Living Organisms and Fossils • Darwin collected the preserved remains of ancient organisms, called fossils. • Some of those fossils resembled organisms that were still alive today.

  14. Living Organisms and Fossils • Others looked completely unlike any creature he had ever seen. • As Darwin studied fossils, new questions arose. • Why had so many of these species disappeared? • How were they related to living species?

  15. Fossils

  16. True Fossils The remains of the dead animal or plant or the imprint left from the remains. Such as… bones teeth skin impressions hair the hardened shell of an ancient invertebrate impression of an animal or plant, even if the actual parts are missing.

  17. Trace Fossils… Something that was made by the animal while it was living that has hardened into stone. Such as… • footprints • burrows • coprolite(animal poop)

  18. Other places to find ancient animal remains: • Frozen glaciers • Amber • Tar pits

  19. The smallest, lowest islands were hot, dry, and nearly barren-Hood Island-sparse vegetation The higher islands had greater rainfall and a different assortment of plants and animals-Isabela- Island had rich vegetation. The Galapagos Island

  20. Animals found in the Galapagos • Land Tortoises • Darwin Finches • Blue-Footed Booby • Marine Iguanas

  21. Animals

  22. Darwin was fascinated in particular by the land tortoises and marine iguanas in the Galápagos. Giant tortoises varied in predictable ways from one island to another. The shape of a tortoise's shell could be used to identify which island a particular tortoise inhabited. The Galapagos Island

  23. Darwin’s Finches Galapagos Islands

  24. The Journey Home • Darwin Observed that characteristics of many plants and animals vary greatly among the islands • Hypothesis: Separate species may have arose from an original ancestor

  25. The Origin of Species • Darwin publish his findings in 1859.

  26. Natural & Artificial Selection • Natural variation--differences among individuals of a species • Artificial selection- nature provides the variation among different organisms, and humans select those variations they find useful.

  27. Evolution by Natural Selection • The Struggle for Existence-members of each species have to compete for food, shelter, other life necessities • Survival of the Fittest-Some individuals better suited for the environment

  28. Struggle For Existence & Survival of The Fittest

  29. Natural Selection • Over time, natural selection results in changes in inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species fitness in its environment.

  30. Descent • Descent with Modification-Each living organism has descended, with changes from other species over time • Common Descent- organisms today were derived from common ancestors

  31. Evidence of Evolution • The Fossil Record • Geographic Distribution of Living Things • Homologous Body Structures • Similarities in Early Development

  32. Evidence for Evolution • The Fossil Record-Layers show change • Geographic Distribution of Living Things • Homologous Body Structures • Similarities in Early Development

  33. Evidence of Evolution • The Fossil Record • Geographic Distribution of Living Things-similar environments have similar types of organisms • Homologous Body Structures • Similarities in Early Development

  34. Homologous Structures • Homologous Structures-structures that have different mature forms in different organisms, but develop from the same embryonic tissue

  35. Evidence for Evolution • Vestigial organs - organs that serve no useful function in an organism • i.e.) appendix, miniature legs, arms

  36. Similarities in Early Development

  37. Molecular Biology • Recent science has been able to study the genetic blueprint of organisms. Similarities in DNA may show relationships to common ancestors.

  38. Summary of Darwin’s Theory… • Individuals in nature differ from one another. • Organisms in nature produce more offspring than can survive, and many of those who do not survive do not reproduce.

  39. Summary of Darwin’s Theory • Because more organisms are produced than can survive, each species must struggle for resources. • Each organism is unique, each has advantages and disadvantages in the struggle for existence.

  40. Summary (cont.) • Individuals best suited for the environment survive and reproduce most successfully. • Species change over long periods of time.

  41. Summary (cont.) • Species alive today descended with modification from species that lived in the past. • All organisms on earth are united into a single family tree of life by common descent.

  42. Phylogeny The evolutionary relationship among species. Utilizes tree-like diagrams to show evolutionary lines of descent.

  43. Darwin’s diagram to illustrate common descent.

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