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LEADERSHIP. GROUPS. A GROUP IS two or more people interacting with one another so that each person influences and is influenced by the others has a collective identity and a sense of shared purpose a social aggregate involving mutual awareness

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  • two or more people
  • interacting with one another
  • so that each person influences and is influenced by the others
  • has a collective identity
  • and a sense of shared purpose
  • a social aggregate
  • involving mutual awareness
  • and potential interaction with structured patterns of communication
  • examples :
    • crowd at a soccer match
    • soccer team
    • parents watching their children swim
successful groups teams


  • have a strong collective identity
  • members have an opportunity to socialise
  • have members who share goals and ambitions
  • and share ownership of ideas
  • have members who are able to communicate effectively (on the same wavelength)
  • have strong cohesion
  • have members who value relationships within the group
  • have a successful coach or leader (see later slides) who ensures that members’ contributions to the group are valued


  • usually skilful individuals make the best team
  • usually individual success (of team members) correlates with overall team success


  • occur if there should be a high level of interaction between players
  • but one (or more) player is being selfish or aggressive
  • if a defence is not working together
  • hence overall team performance suffers


  • people seem to work less hardin a group than they do on their own
  • example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than single sculls
  • this is social loafing‘the Ringlemann Effect’


  • individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion
  • example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win


  • teams with high social cohesion but low task cohesion are less successful


  • the behaviour of leaders and coaches
    • coaches should use all leadership behaviours to influence different individuals


  • factors relating to the group
    • team identity, targets, member ability and role
  • creation of team short and long-term goals
  • rewarding of individual and team efforts
what is leadership


  • can influence the behaviour of others towards required goals
  • will influence effective team cohesion
  • will help fulfil expectations of a team
  • develops an environment in which a group is motivated rewarded and helped towards its common goals
  • Leaders are people others should choose to follow. They get the best out of people by inspiring or motivating others to achieve what they are capable of.
  • Identify some leadership roles that occur at school.
  • Explain the skills which are important for a good leader to have


Richie Mccaw

factors affecting leader effectiveness


  • communication
  • respect for group members
  • enthusiasm
  • high ability
  • deep knowledge
  • charisma




styles of leadership
Styles of Leadership

autocratic authoritarian

  • leader who makes all the decisions.
  • One leader takes sole responsibility for the group
  • Leader takes firm control of the group and makes all decisions.
  • Avoids confusion and indecision allowing decisoins to be made quickly


  • leader who shares the decisions
  • (with members of group or team)
  • seeks advice
  • is prepared to change his / her mind based on advice
  • Shifts burden of responsibility off of onw person and onto whole group
  • Uses experience of others to make effective and well judged decisions

laissez faire

  • leader who lets others make decisions
  • Leader is laid back and takes little responsibility for decisions.
  • No control exerted over the group
  • Individuals have freedom to make their own decisions and use their initiative.


  • All individuals make a contribution to the process with the majority view followed

Allows group to feel valued and take ownership in group activities

Allows discussion and consensus

member s characteristics within leadership

A GOOD LEADERwill adapt to

    • expectations
    • knowledge
    • Experience
    • group members
  • if group is hostile - leader adopts autocratic style
  • if group is friendly - leader adopts more democratic person-centred style
  • problems arise if strategies for preparation used by leader do not match group expectations
meeting the needs of participants
Meeting the needs of participants
  • A leader should always be transparent about what to expect at the beginning of an activity so everyone knows where they stand and no one gets disappointed through having different expectations.
  • Communication allows a leader to give participants information about what they are doing well (encouragement) and what needs to be improved (correction) in order to improve performances.
  • A good communicator spends most of their time listening to the needs and feelings of others.
earning the right to be heard
Earning the right to be heard
  • Physical presentation
  • Knowledge of the subject
  • Attitude towards participants
  • Organised
what messages are being sent
What messages are being sent?
  • Untidy and scruffy
  • Slang is used
  • Voice tone does not vary
  • No acknowledgement of others
  • No gestures are used
being heard
Being Heard

Gaining Attention

  • Using a loud signal causes the group to focus their attention on a leader.

Voice and Body Language

  • Enthusiasm is projected by changes in body language, tone and volume of speech.
  • Making eye contact allows individual group members to feel valued.


  • A speaker should bunch the group together and position themselves directly in front of the group in the command position. This ensures they have the groups full attention and are in their direct line of sight.

Waiting for silence

  • A speaker should ask for quiet and wait for silence. Speaking over the top of group members limits the effectiveness of what is being said, encourages rudeness, and undermines a leaders authority.

Use pictorial language

  • Choose words carefully – not too many
  • Key points and cue cards
  • Good demonstrations are usually performed front on or side on.
  • Demonstrations are used to reinforce and support the verbal instructions describing an activity.
  • Make sure the movement is performed using correct technique.
  • Demonstrate the complete movement of the activity.
  • Use slow motion to emphasize the key parts of the activity.
  • Use KEY WORDS to focus attention on the important aspects
  • Finish with complete action, at a realistic speed for the activity.
  • Make sure all group members see the skill properly.
  • Feedback is information given to participants that lets them know how they performed in a situation as well as how they can improve.

Specific rather then general

  • Specific feedback identifies what needs to be improved.
  • Feedback can be summarised using key points
  • Focused on the activity rather than on the individual.

Positive rather then negative

  • Encourages participants, motivates them to improve.
  • Good idea to start and finish by being positive
  • Leaders should actively look for positives in group activity.
speech factors in communication
SPEECH Factors in Communication
  • S – Speaking needs to have a purpose (quality not quantity); relevant, easy to understand
  • P – Posture, located in front of group, directly facing participants, using arms and facial expressions for what’s being said.
  • E – Encouraging, giving praise and support and energy within the lesson
  • E – Engaging, stimulating interest through questions, enthusiasm
  • C – Contact, Learn names, move around group give individual attention
  • H – Hearing, Generate feedback by questioning to check understanding
goal setting
Goal Setting
  • Goals can be set for the group in the form of session objectives which outline what the leader wishes to achieve in each session.
  • Goal setting focuses attention on to specific objectives and helps to motivate members to achieve the objectives.
  • Specific – Goals
  • Measureable
  • Achievable
  • Realistic
  • Time frame
specific goals
Specific Goals
  • Explain how appropriate each of the following goals are in being specific and measureable in respect of a group activity.
  • The group will improve their passing
  • By the end of the week the group will shoot above 70% in a shooting drill
  • The group will perform their activity successfully
  • When managing a groups behavior, prevention is always better then cure – a leader that is well prepared, keeps talk to a minimum, activity to a maximum and is dynamic and interactive will tend to have fewer management problems than will an unprepared leader.
preventative management
Preventative management


  • standards of behavior set at the beginning of a series of sessions, so everyone knows what is expected of them.
  • Need to have consequences when expectations are not met
establish routines
Establish Routines
  • Consistently using set behavior over time to develop a habit
  • Saves time and reduces the need for explanations
  • Gives group members security, as they know what to expect.
maximise activity
Maximise Activity
  • Individual and partner activities engage learners and keep them moving
  • Use variety to stimulate interest and challenge
  • Need to have equipment set up and ready at the beginning of the session.
time limits
Time Limits
  • Used to get a group to respond quickly (eg a leader can use a five second countdown)
  • Increases expectation and need for urgency in what is being done.
  • Continually moving around group, observing activities and giving assistance
  • Important to give every individual equal attention to ensure equality and fairness
  • Remain facing the whole group to maintain a clear line of sight and ensure group is staying on task and instructions are being followed.
  • Adopting a steadfast attitude and treating all individuals the same way.
  • Establishes a sense of fairness and equality, because the group knows the leader will not waiver under pressure.
  • Need to be prepared to follow through with consequences when setting rules and expectations in order to achieve consistency.

Time needed

  • Space and equipment needed
  • Safety
  • Alternative activities
  • Increasing activity levels
  • Progressions
managing behaviour
Managing behaviour
  • Severity of behaviour continuum
  • Dealing with lateness
  • Behaviour management continuum
  • 1st incident – Positioning
  • 2nd incident – Verbal Warning
  • 3rd incident – removal temporarily
  • 4th incident – removal from group

Use sense of humour

  • Non confrontational
  • Ignore attention seeking behaviour
  • Session flow