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Unit III Part 6. Andrew Jackson The and the Second BUS The Whigs. Remember. Jackson hated Banks He distrusted paper money He opposed the Second BUS because it put power into the hands of his enemies The Second BUS was not popular with farmers Ruthless foreclosures

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unit iii part 6

Unit IIIPart 6

Andrew Jackson

The and the Second BUS

The Whigs

remember
Remember
  • Jackson hated Banks
  • He distrusted paper money
  • He opposed the Second BUS because it put power into the hands of his enemies
  • The Second BUS was not popular with farmers
  • Ruthless foreclosures

If Jackson was elected again in 1832

The BUS charter was up for renewal in 1836

Who would be President in 1836?

friends of the bus
Friends of the BUS
  • Were worried that even if congress passed a BUS renewal, Jackson would veto it
  • Nicholas Biddle was President of the Second BUS…he ran it very well
  • Biddle was worried too
daniel webster had a plan
Daniel Webster had a plan
  • To save the Second BUS
  • He told Biddle to apply EARLY for a recharter
  • He believed that Jackson would not dare to veto a bank bill before the election of 1832
  • Belief that if Jackson DID veto the BUS recharter, he would LOSE the election
biddle asked for an early re charter
Biddle asked for an early re-charter
  • Congress passed the Second BUS recharter bill
  • Jackson vetoed it
  • NOTE: the Second BUS would still operate until 1836
  • Biddle made lots of low-interest loans to those opposed to Jackson during the election
but then
BUT THEN
  • Jackson was re-elected!
  • Still two factions of one party:
  • Democratic Republicans:

Jackson (VP Van Buren) (219)

  • National Republicans:

Henry Clay (49): first to have a national platform

  • Anti-Masonics (Third Party)
  • Wirt (0): first to have a National Convention
jackson
Jackson
  • Believed his election was a sign from the people that they wanted him to destroy the Bank even before the charter ran out
  • So he asked his Secretary of the Treasury to remove all of the federal $ from the Bank…he refused and was fired
  • The next Sec. of the Treasury…the same
  • They both believed it would be really bad for the economy
roger taney attorney general
Roger Taney (Attorney General)
  • Was made the new Sec. of the Treasury
  • HE removed the federal $ from the Second BUS
  • The $ was re-deposited into several “PET” banks owned by Jackson lovers
  • Was this more democratic?
  • Yes…before the government $ could only be used by one bank, now…many
the federal money
The Federal Money
  • Was used by more banks = more economic opportunities for more people
marshall died 1834
Marshall died! 1834
  • Jackson named Taney as new Supreme Court Chief Justice (a reward?)
  • In the meantime…Nicholas Biddle was forced to call in loans early to keep the bank afloat
  • More farmers lost land
  • Businesses failed, factories closed, lost jobs
  • Depression for several years
the specie circular 1836
The Specie Circular 1836
  • A Jackson idea passed by congress
  • Required buyers to buy land with specie!
  • Made economy even worse
  • Contributed to the Panic of 1837
  • Panic will be blamed on Van Buren because he will be the president to inherit it
taney s court
Taney’s Court
  • Modified some of Marshall’s decisions:
  • Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge 1837: Taney said that a state MAY amend a contract if it would benefit that state’s citizens
the rise of the whigs
The Rise of the Whigs
  • Jackson made many enemies due to his actions during the Nullification Crisis and his war with the Second BUS
  • During his second term, the Whig Party was formed
  • It was a combination of National Republicans and Jackson Haters (who did not necessarily agree with the ideology of the National Republicans)
the whigs
The Whigs
  • Founders: Daniel Webster and Henry Clay
  • Platform: Clay’s American System
  • Ideology: Stood for the same issues as the Federalist Party: High Tariff, Strong Central Government, a BUS
  • Remember: Webster was the last spokesman for the Federalist Party at the Hartford Convention
election of 1836
Election of 1836
  • Democrats (Old Democratic-Republican Party)

Van Buren (NY) (170)

VP Johnson (killed Tecumseh)

  • Three Whig Candidates:

W.H. Harrison (73)

Hugh White (26)

Daniel Webster (14)

  • Independent: Magnum (11)
van buren
Van Buren
  • Will only serve one term because the economy was so bad and it was all blamed on him
  • Although Jackson was at fault: his war with the Second BUS and the Specie Circular
  • BUT Jackson was still President until March of 1837
african americans
African Americans
  • Free in the North but second class citizens
  • Often could not vote in Northern States
  • 1831 Nat Turner’s Rebellion: White family killed while slaves attempted to escape
  • Great fear by Southerners
  • Abolitionist societies disappeared in the South
the gag rule
The Gag Rule
  • The slavery issue was such a hot topic that if it was introduced in Congress, no work was done…only fighting over slavery
  • SO…members of the House were subject to the Gag Rule…Members were not supposed to bring up the topic of slavery so other work could get done
the gag rule1
The Gag Rule
  • John Quincy Adams (was elected to the House after his presidency) tried to break the Gag Rule over 300 times
native americans
Native Americans
  • Since Jefferson, the U.S. policy was removal to east of the Mississippi
  • Jackson’s Trail of Tears
  • 1832 Black Hawk War in the Northwest
  • 1837-42 Seminole War in Florida
foreign affairs
Foreign Affairs
  • The English finally opened up West Indies trade to the U.S.
  • The French paid us compensation for ships and cargo seized prior to the War of 1812 with the Convention of 1831
  • Now…Mexico…
mexico
Mexico
  • Had gained its independence from Spain in early 1820’s
  • Big U.S. migration to Mexico due the theEmpressario System (like the Headright system: free land to settlers)
  • Stephen Austin one of the first
great migration
Great Migration
  • By 1830 there were 20,000 Americans in Mexico
  • BUT they were not happy:
  • Did not like to pay a tariff on U.S. goods
  • Did not have self-government
  • 1829: Mexico outlawed slavery
mexico1
Mexico
  • Americans in Texas area formed a provisional government
  • Santa Ana (Mexican dictator) Led the Mexican army against the Americans
  • Americans in Texas (Mexico) declared their independence in 1836
the war for texas independence
The War for Texas Independence
  • 1836: Battle of the Alamo (big win for Mexico)
  • 1836: Battle of the Goliad (big win for Mexico)
  • 1836: Battle of San Jacinto (Americans won their independence by capturing Santa Ana)
  • Sam Houston: President of the Texas Republic asked for U.S. annexation
texas
Texas
  • Jackson would not consider annexing Texas
  • Did not want to risk war with Mexico
  • Did not want to upset the Senate balance of free and slave states…Texas would enter as a slave state.
  • Will be annexed by Tyler after election of Polk in 1844