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Water Rescue Awareness. Pasco Fire Department. Water Rescue Awareness. Objectives: Recognize the need for water search and rescue based upon the complexity of the incident Define and implement the assessment phase of the operation

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Pasco Fire Department


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    1. Water Rescue Awareness Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    2. Objectives: • Recognize the need for water search and rescue based upon the complexity of the incident • Define and implement the assessment phase of the operation • Identify the resources necessary to conduct safe and effective water operations • Implement site control and scene management • Recognize the general hazards associated with water incidents and the procedures necessary to mitigate these hazards within the general search and rescue area • Determine rescue or recovery profile(S) Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    3. NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents Pasco Fire Department • 9.2.3 Organizations operating at the awareness level at water search and rescue incidents shall implement procedures for the following: • Recognizing the need for water search and rescue • Implementing the assessment phase • Identifying the resources necessary to conduct safe and effective water operations • Implementing site control and scene management • Recognizing general hazards associated with water incidents and the procedures necessary to mitigate these hazards within the general search and rescue area • Determining rescue versus body recovery Water Rescue Awareness

    4. WAC 296-305 • 296-305-05101 • Written standard operating procedures shall be established consistent with the following levels: • Awareness Level – This level represents the minimum capability of organizations that provide response to technical rescue incidents • 296-305-05103 • Training shall be provided to correspond to the operational level of the fire department. All fire departments shall be trained to the awareness level; members which will be expected to perform at a higher operational level shall be trained to that level. • 295-3-5-05113 (5) • Organizations choosing to operate at the awareness, operations or technician level for water rescue incidents must meet the requirements of this section and the nonconflicting portions of chapter 9 of the 2009 edition of NFPA 1670, Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Rescue Incidents. • (ii) All employees involved in water rescue shall be trained in water rescue techniques and wear Coast Guard approved personal flotation devices, Type III, minimum. Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    5. Pasco Fire Department Standard Operating Guideline’s Pasco Fire Department 30-6.7.1 – Water Search and Rescue This SOG shall apply to all Pasco Fire Department personnel responding to and operating within a Water Rescue Incident or Training Environment. 30-6.7.2 – Personal Floatation Devices and Personnel Safety involving water incidents This guideline is established to meet the intent and requirements of water rescue as defined by WAC 296-305-051130(5)(a) and Chapter 9 of the 2009 edition of NFPA 1670 Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents Water Rescue Awareness

    6. Definitions • Awareness Level Actions taken by the responders at the Awareness Level are defensive in nature and should pose no risk, or a low level of risk to the responder. This level represents the minimum capability of organizations that provide response to technical rescue incidents. • Operational Level Actions taken at the Operational Level are of limited offensive nature and generally at a low or moderate risk to the responder. This level represents the capability of organizations to respond to technical rescue incidents and to identify hazards, use equipment, and apply limited techniques to support and participate in technical rescue incidents. • Technical Level Actions taken by the responders are offensive in nature and may pose a high level of risk. This level represents the capability of organizations to respond to technical rescue incidents, to identify hazards, use equipment, and apply advanced techniques specified to coordinate, perform, and supervise technical rescue incidents. Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    7. Water Rescue Size Up Pasco Fire Department • Scope, Magnitude, and nature of the incident (complexity) • Location and number of victims • Risk/Benefit Analysis • Separation, isolation, security, and interviewing of witnesses • Hazards – disrupted or exposed utilities, standing or flowing water, mechanical hazards, hazmat, explosives • Access to the scene • Environmental Factors • Resource assessment • Rescue/Recovery Water Rescue Awareness

    8. Water Rescue Incident Complexity Operations Level – is determined by The method of victim entrapment Operations are conducted only from the shore -or- Are conducted from any watercraft used by the organization Pasco Fire Department Technician Level – is determined by Any water rescue in which technical rope skills are needed Operations in which the rescuer must enter the water Water Rescue Awareness

    9. Surface Water Pasco Fire Department Examples Include: Rivers, Streams, Canals, Pools, Lakes, Gravel Pits, Storm Drain Systems Water Rescue Awareness

    10. Incident Causes……….Most Likely Pasco Fire Department • Changes in Weather • Overconfidence • No Personal Floatation Device(s) • Cramps • Submerged Debris • Collision of watercraft Water Rescue Awareness

    11. Swift Water Pasco Fire Department Water that is moving at a rate greater than one knot [1.85 km/hr (1.15 mph)] – NFPA 1670 3.3.160 • Some Parts of the Yakima River • Columbia and Snake Rivers • Some Irrigation Canals Water Rescue Awareness

    12. Water Hazards Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    13. Hydraulics Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    14. Eddy An eddy is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle. Pasco Fire Department Eddy Water Rescue Awareness

    15. Outwash/Backwash Pasco Fire Department Boil Line Outwash Backwash Water Rescue Awareness

    16. Current Slower moving water tends to be at the outside of the channel and on the downstream side of the bend. Pasco Fire Department Slower moving water tends to be at the bottom water layer of the channel. Water Rescue Awareness

    17. Water Temperature • The Body cannot maintain its temperature in water that is less than 92 degrees F. • Heat loss occurs 25 times faster in water than in air • Immersion often leads to hypothermia Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    18. Strainers • Partial Obstructions that filter water • Downed trees, gratings, mesh • Creates unequal force across itself • People become pinned by the waters force Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    19. Low Head Dams Low Head Dams are control structures used on channels. They partially block the waterway and “back up” the water behind them. They are self-regulating and allow water to just spill over the top as levels increase. Pasco Fire Department • Dangers • Strong current just beyond the downstream face of the dam • Water flow is recirculating (which drops down sharply down the face of the dam, rises, then returns to the face of the dam as a backwash – and quickly drops down again. • PFD’s will not provide sufficient flotation to prevent the user from being drawn under Water Rescue Awareness

    20. Obstructions Pasco Fire Department An up stream V pattern flow usually indicates the presence of an obstruction or submerged hazard. Water Rescue Awareness

    21. Undercuts Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    22. Underwater Hazards Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    23. Contamination Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    24. Turbidity Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. Pasco Fire Department • Causes of Turbidity – • Phytoplankton • Sediments from soil or bank erosion • Resuspended sediment from the bottom of the channel • Waste discharge • Algae growth • Urban Runoff Water Rescue Awareness

    25. Identify Last Seen Victim Location Pasco Fire Department If the victim cannot be seen on the surface of the water, we need to identify a Last Seen Point (LSP) to assist Dive Rescue Technicians. Water Rescue Awareness

    26. Identify Last Seen Victim Location Pasco Fire Department Identify the number of witnesses and victims. Separate the witnesses and interview them from the spot that they last saw the victim. Attempt to “Triangulate” the location. This will be the initial search area. Water Rescue Awareness

    27. Basic Rescue Techniques • REACH Pasco Fire Department • Outreached arm, leg or other tool • Yell clear, simple instructions to the victim • Ensure that you have firm footing • Do not enter the water any deeper than knee-depth • Remember that the victim is under duress and may pull the rescuer into the water Water Rescue Awareness

    28. Pasco Fire Department • THROW • This type of rescue employs throw rope bags, life rings, and floats. • This type of rescue is only effective if the subject is cooperative. • Give clear and simple commands to the subject. • Remember that the victim is under duress and may pull the rescuer into the water. Water Rescue Awareness

    29. Rescue Communications Whistle Commands 1 Blast = Stop and Look at me 2 Blasts = Begin the action that we agreed upon or is indicated 3 Blasts = I need help Pasco Fire Department Arm Signals One arm raised = need help or pay attention One hand on top of head = I am OK Rope Signals 1 tug OK 2 tugs Advance 3 tugs Take up slack 4 tugs Help Water Rescue Awareness

    30. Rescue vs. Recovery Factors to consider: Pasco Fire Department • Time Submerged • Age • Physical Condition • Known/Suspected Trauma • Water Temperature • Estimated Time for Rescue/Removal Water Rescue Awareness

    31. Command and Control • Arrival, Size Up, and Initiate/Establish Command • Recognize that this incident may extend beyond the initial operational period • An IAP may need to be developed • Determine Incident Complexity • Operational – can the rescue be affected from the shore? If not you are in a technical rescue situation. Call for the resources. • Technical – Prepare to support Dive Operations (Secure Boat Launch, Have EMS supplies readily available, prepare for decontamination) • Identify and Secure General Hazards • Electrical Utilities • Gas, propane, fuel oil, other alternative energy sources • Water Size Up (Temperature, hazards) • Communications • Identify and Secure Personal Hazards • Trips, slips, falls, etc. • PFD’s • Identify Hazards that are Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health • Swift water situations with currents exceeding those in which a person or watercraft can safely operate • Secure the general area • Controlling/limiting access to the area by unnecessary personnel • Locate, Identify. Secure and Interview Witnesses • Identify the LSP (Last Seen Point) Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    32. Uh Oh Pasco Fire Department Water Rescue Awareness

    33. Pasco Fire Department