Carpentersville Fire Department. Firefighter Level III Fire Hose and Appliances. Objectives. 3-6.1. Identify the adapters and appliances to be used in three specific fire ground situations (4-12.2) 3-6.2. Demonstrate the annual service test for fire hose (4-12.4)
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Carpentersville Fire Department Firefighter Level III Fire Hose and Appliances
Objectives • 3-6.1. Identify the adapters and appliances to be used in three specific fire ground situations (4-12.2) • 3-6.2. Demonstrate the annual service test for fire hose (4-12.4) • 3-6.3. Demonstrate the proper procedure for cleaning and maintaining fire hose (4-12.3) • 3-6.4. Demonstrate the proper procedure for cleaning and maintaining couplings
Objectives • 3-6.5. Demonstrate the proper procedure for cleaning and maintaining nozzles (4-12.3) • 3-6.6. Demonstrate the proper procedure for inspecting couplings for damage (4-12.3) *( ) indicates reference to NFPA 1001-1992
References: • Essentials of Fire Fighting, 3rd Edition • Chapter 11 • Chapter 10
Objective3-6.1. Identify the adapters and the appliances to be used in three specific fire ground situations (4-12.2)
Valve Devices • Wye Appliance- divides one hose line into two or more lines. Wye appliances are gated and may be controlled at the gate. • Siamese Appliance- takes two or more hose lines and makes one hoseline or device. May or may not have a clapper. Usually used to overcome problems encountered due to friction loss in hose lays which need to carry a large flow or cover a long distance. Also used to supply ladder pipes that do not have permanent waterway.
Valve Devices • Water Thief- it’s a variation of a wye. Most commonly consists of an INLET and two 1 1/2 DISCHARGE outlets. Its intended use is on a 2 1/2 near the nozzle, so that a 2 1/2 and two 1 1/2 may used in the same layout.
Large Diameter Hose Appliances • Hydrant Valves- used when a forward lay is made from the water supply to the fire scene. Allows for the flow of the water pressure to be boosted, additional lines laid, and other arriving pumpers to connect for operations. All this is done without interrupting the initial water flow.
Adapters & Appliances • Valves • Gate- used to control the flow from a hydrant. Has a baffle that is moved by a handle and screw. • Butterfly- used on large pump intakes. Uses a flat baffle operated by a quarter-turn handle. The baffle is in the center when the valve is open. • Clapper- Used in a Siamese and sprinkler connection to allow only hose to be connected if need be. The clapper is a flat disk that is hinged on one side and swings in door-like manner.
Adapters & Appliances • Valves • Ball- open when handle is in line with hose and closed when when at a right angle. Mainly used on fire pump piping systems.
Fittings • Double Males • Double Females • Reducers • Elbow Fittings • Coupling/Hose Caps- for male couplings • Plug- for female couplings
OBJECTIVE3-6.2. Demonstrate the annual service test for fire hose. (4-12.2)
Service Testing Fire Hose • Required annually • Two types of testing • Acceptance test- done before hose is shipped to a buyer and it is a lot more rigorous and at extremely high pressures. • Service test- is done to determine that the hose is still able to perform • NFPA 1962 • Testing to be done annually and after any repairs or damages are noted.
Service Testing Fire Hose • Before testing examine hose jacket for any defects, coupling damage, worn or defective gaskets. Obviously if any of the such is noted, it should be repaired prior to testing and if cannot be corrected, it is to be taken OUT OF SERVICE.
Service Testing Fire Hose • Test Site • large enough to lay hoses with out bends or kinks • isolated from traffic and public interference • well lighted if done at night • smooth and free from dirt, glass, oil, and any other damaging debris • a slight grade is beneficial to aid in draining hose • a water source sufficient enough to fill hoses
Service Testing Fire Hose • Equipment needed • hose testing machine, fire pumper, portable pump • hose gate valves • means of recording hose numbers and test results • tags or other means to identify sections that fail • means of marking each length with the year of test and to mark the couplings to see if pulling has occurred
Service Testing Fire Hose • Safety at Testing Site • exercise care as you will be working with hose that is under pressure and has a potential to EXPLODE • use helmet and gloves and eye protection, if using a fire pumper use hearing protection • if possible DO NOT connect hoses to a pump panel where personnel will be operating • open and close ALL valves SLOWLY • DO NOT exceed hose lays of 300 feet • keep testing areas free of water, this aids in detecting leaks from couplings
Service Testing Fire Hose • lay large diameter hose flat on ground before charging • follow NFPA guidelines • hose made prior to 1978 service test to 250 psi • hose made after 1978 follow manufactures recommendations or 400 psi • double (inner/outer) rubber jacket hose 300 psi • let only those QUALIFIED operate testing machines if you DO NOT KNOW, DO NOT TOUCH!
Service Testing Fire Hose • Service Test Procedure • Step 1 • lay hose out in a number of sections not to exceed 300 feet • check gaskets and then tighten sections together with spanner wrenches
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 2 • connect an open test valve to each discharge valve using spanners. A test valve gate is a specially designed valve to be used when hose testing. It has a 1/4 inch (6mm) hole in the gate that lets the hose get pressurized but will not allow water to surge through the hose if it fails. Even when using a hose test valve gate NEVER stand or walk near hose that is pressurized!
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 3 • connect test length to each test valve and tighten with spanner • Step 4 • tie a rope or rope hose tool or hose strap to each test length of hose 10 to 15 inches from the test valve connections. Secure the other end to the discharge pipe or other anchor.
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 5 • attach a shutoff nozzle(or any other device that will permit air and water to drain from hose) to the open end of each test length • Step 6 • fill each hoseline with water with a pump pressure of 50 psi (350kPa) or to hydrant pressure. • open nozzles as hoses are filling, hold them above the pump level to discharge all the air from the hoselines. Discharge the water away from the test site.
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 7 • close all nozzles after air is purged • mark each length of hose on jacket at couplings • make sure there are no kinks or twist and no couplings are leaking • if leak is after coupling take hose out of service until repaired • if leak is from coupling and cannot be stopped, depressurize hose and replace gasket, and then retest length of hose
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 8 • close each hose gate valve • Step 9 • increase the pump pressure to the required test pressure per NFPA 1962 • monitor connections for leakage as pressure increases • Step 10 • maintain test pressure for five minutes and check for leaking
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 11 • slowly reduce pump pressure • Step 12 • slowly open each nozzle and bleed off pressure of each hose length • break all connections and bleed water off away from test site • Step 13 • check the marks on the hose jacket at the couplings, if it moved take hose o.o.s. and tag it
Service Testing Fire Hose • Step 14 • record the test results for each section of hose
OBJECTIVE 3-6.3. Demonstrate the procedure for cleaning and maintaining fire service hose(4-12.3)
Care & Maintenance of Fire Hose • Types of damage • mechanical • chemical • thermal • heat & cold • mildew & mold • Washing • Drying • Maintaining
Mechanical Damage • Occurs when an object comes in contact with hose, somewhere along its length and cuts, abrades, tears, or stresses the inner or outer jackets • Hose is damaged when it is pulled over sharp edges • can be prevented by using a hose roller or some other type of padding • may not be practical during initial stages of fire, but should be done during training and overhaul ops.
Mechanical Damage • Hose may be damaged when it is advanced through openings with broken glass • windows that have been removed for any number of reasons • make sure all the glass is cleaned from the sash to prevent glass from cutting the hose jacket
Mechanical Damage • Damage occurs also when hose is dragged through debris, it usually contains • glass • nails • metal • This causes damage to the jacket
Mechanical Damage • Tools or equipment stored on top of the hose in the hose bed may damage hose • store all tools and equipment in places other than the hose bed, even if it is temporary • Tools do little damage if stored on top of the hose, the damage occurs when the hose pulled with the tools on top
Mechanical Damage • Abrasions can occur when the hose is advanced over rough surfaces • this actually occurs more often during non-emergency events and training rather than during actual incidents • when dragged over asphalt repeatedly the outer jacket weakens and tears and eventually fails
Mechanical Damage • Hose suffers damage when it is dragged behind a moving apparatus • occurs when laying a line and it gets hung up in the bed • occurs when you accidentally loose your hose load onto the roadway because of poor loading
Mechanical Damage • Damage occurs when hose is run over by vehicles • when vehicle runs over a section of hose, it damage may not be immediately noticeable • when a vehicle runs over the hose the outer jacket and the inner jacket may become unbound • provide traffic control on scenes and lay hoses out of the way of moving vehicles • if it is necessary to drive over hose make sure it is a charged line instead of uncharged
Mechanical Damage • If large diameter hose is laid and must be driven over, lay a tarp over it so it does not get caught up in the dual axles and pass over on an angle
Mechanical Damage • Chaffing may occur from vibrations from the pumper • hose connected to a pumper with excessive vibration cause chaffing of the hose where it meets the street • use a block or chafing block to prevent this
Mechanical Damage • Reloading dirty hose back into a hose bed may cause damage • dirt and grit abrades the jacket, like sandpaper
Mechanical Damage • Loading hose on its edges • NFPA and manufactures recommends hose be loaded flat, especially LDH, because a horseshoe and accordion load wears out the edges • Hose damage occurs when hose is left loaded with sharp edges for a long period of time • tightly loaded hose that remains for long time can develop cracks • NFPA recommends hose be pulled and reloaded 4 (four) times a year
Mechanical Damage • Damage may occur if a water hammer occurs • a sudden increase in water pressure, or water hammer, caused by “slamming shut” a nozzle bale • may cause hose and couplings, that are weak, to burst • use pressure governors and in-line pressure reliefs valves
Mechanical Damage • Damage occurs if hose is left hanging in a tower for extended periods of time • inner lining of hose can be damaged where hose rests over the peg • if hose is to be left in the hose tower for an extended period of time rotate the hoses position on the peg
Heat & Cold Damage HEAT DAMAGE • Heat damage occurs when the hose comes in contact with hot debris from a fire • Causes charring, melting, and weakening of the jackets fibers • Will also cause jacket to dry out causing cracking • Similar damage occurs when you leave the hose near an apparatus’s exhaust pipe
Heat & Cold Damage • Obviously route hose away from the exhaust pipe to prevent this damage • Heat damage also occurs when you leave hose in an ambient air temperature, like a hose dryer or in direct sunlight for extended period of time
Heat & Cold Damage COLD DAMAGE • Cold damage occurs when water within the hose freezes • Allow water to flow uninterrupted through lines during cold weather operations by leaving nozzles slightly open • Immediately drain and roll hose after use • Prevent intake hose from freezing by recirculating water and by dumping excess onto ground away from hoses, try for gutters
Heat & Cold Damage • Prevent couplings for leaking by tightening all connections • Prevent couplings and discharges from freezing by prelubricating them with anti-freeze • If hose becomes frozen in ice during operations, melt it in one on three ways • melt ice with steam, not fire • chop lose with axes • or leave hose until it warms up
Heat & Cold Damage • Break frozen couplings by pouring warm water over them, but first wrap them in a towel • Or place them near rigs exhaust • Do not thaw with a torch or any other high heat device as damage can occur to coupling and/or gasket • Never load or fold frozen hose • Before placing frozen hose back into service it must be service tested
Mold and Mildew Damage • Hose jackets are woven from organic fibers, such as, cotton or flax, and are very susceptible to attack from fungus • Mildew weakens the hose jacket as fungus consumes the fibers • Ideal condition exist within hose storage racks and hose beds where evaporation may be inhibited
Heat & Cold Damage • Prevention • make sure totally dried before loading or storing • cover hose beds with water repellant tarps or covers • check hose beds and storage areas for a wet musty odor indicating hidden mildew • ventilate areas where hose is stored, including hose beds • Immediately wash hose, if mildew is located, with a mild soap solution and dry completely
Chemical Damage • Many chemicals in liquid and gaseous states enter woven jackets and destroy the rubber inside jackets of hose • gas • oil • battery acid • other petrochemicals
Chemical Damage • Prevention • avoid laying hoses in curbs or gutters or where oil, gasoline, and run off from fire fighting runoff water could contain harmful chemicals • scrub hose thoroughly if suspected coming in contact with acids, scrub with a bicarbonate solution, the solution bubbling on the jacket will indicate if the hose jacket did absorb acids • test and inspect all inactive hose • test hose if any suspicion of chemical damage