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Autonomy. Chapter 9. What is Autonomy?. Independence An individual ’ s capacity to behave on his or her own Autonomy Emotional components (feeling separate from parents) Behavioral components (the growth of independent decision making)

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Chapter 9

what is autonomy
What is Autonomy?
  • Independence
    • An individual’s capacity to behave on his or her own
  • Autonomy
    • Emotional components (feeling separate from parents)
    • Behavioral components (the growth of independent decision making)
    • Cognitive components (developing personal beliefs and values)
autonomy development in modern society
Autonomy Development in Modern Society
  • Today’s teens spend much more time away from the direct supervision of adults than prior generations
  • But today’s teens also have become more economically reliant on their families than prior generations
three types of autonomy
Three Types of Autonomy
  • Emotional Autonomy
    • Gaining emotional independence in relationships with others, especially parents
  • Behavioral Autonomy
    • Making independent decisions and following through on them
  • Value Autonomy
    • Developing an independent set of beliefs and principles, resisting peer and parental pressures
development of emotional autonomy
Development of Emotional Autonomy
  • What triggers individuation?
    • Changes in teen’s appearance provoke changes in how teen views self and how parents view teen. This alters parent-adolescent interactions
    • Social-cognitive development stimulates movement toward individuation
development of emotional autonomy1
Development of Emotional Autonomy
  • Emotional Autonomy and Parenting Practices
    • Healthy individuation and positive mental health are fostered by close, not distant, family relationships
    • Conditions that encourage both individuation and emotional closeness facilitate autonomy
development of behavioral autonomy
Development of Behavioral Autonomy
  • Changes in Decision-Making Abilities
    • How do decision making abilities improve from 7th to 12th grade?
    • Older adolescents showed more sophisticated abilities in:
      • awareness of risks
      • considering future consequences
      • turning to a consultant
      • recognizing vested interests
development of behavioral autonomy1
Development of Behavioral Autonomy
  • Changes in susceptibility to influence
  • Conformity to peers is higher during early and middle adolescence
    • Parents are more influential regarding long-term issues, basic values
    • Peers’ opinions are more influential for day-to-day matters (music tastes or clothing style)
development of behavioral autonomy2
Development of Behavioral Autonomy

Changes in Feelings of Self-Reliance

  • Adolescent girls report feeling more self-reliant than adolescent boys do
  • Adolescents who have a stronger sense of self-reliance report having
    • higher self-esteem
    • fewer behavior problems
the development of value autonomy
The Development of Value Autonomy
  • Moral Reasoning Development
    • How individuals think about moral dilemmas and make moral judgments
  • Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory
    • Used morally challenging stories (Heinz)
    • More interested in the reasoning behind people’s explanations than whether the answer was right or wrong
the heinz dilemma
The Heinz Dilemma

Was it right or wrong for Heinz to steal the drug for his wife?

Would your answer be considered preconventional, conventional, postconventional?

in class exercise
In Class Exercise
  • a 25-year-old black militant who graduated from Harvard
  • a Mexican farmer, illegally in the United States
  • a homosexual football star
  • a middle-aged religious fanatic, mother of two teenagers
  • an attractive lesbian, occupation M.D.
  • a sorority girl majoring in fashion merchandise
  • a male radical hippie working as an environmental ecologist
  • a 59-year-old female community leader
  • a call girl
  • an obese and balding politician
  • a drug dealer from an upper-class family
  • a mildly retarded male teenager who is a musical genius
  • a handicapped telephone operator
  • a male midget
based on what you ve read use info from text to support your answers
Based on what you’ve read…Use info from text to support your answers
  • Does emotional autonomy necessarily mean cutting off emotional ties with parents?
  • How does peer pressure fit into the concepts of behavior and value autonomy? According to research, how much of an impact does peer pressure have on behavior/value autonomy during adolescence?
the development of value autonomy2
The Development of Value Autonomy
  • Prosocial Reasoning, Behavior, and Volunteerism:
    • Prosocial behavior (helping others)
    • Prosocial reasoning becomes more sophisticated
      • But changes in actual prosocial behavior, such as helping others or empathizing with others, are not consistently found in adolescence
  • Involvement in community service leads to
    • Gains in social responsibility
    • Gains in tolerance
    • Increases in the importance that individuals place on the importance of helping others
the development of value autonomy3
The Development of Value Autonomy

Political Thinking

  • Becomes more abstract
  • Becomes less authoritarian and less rigid
  • Becomes more principled (an increase in a consistent set of attitudes; an ideology)
the development of value autonomy4
The Development of Value Autonomy

Religious Beliefs

  • Become more abstract, more principled, and more independent during the adolescent years
  • The stated importance of religion—and participation in an organized religion—declines somewhat during the adolescent years