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FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY PowerPoint Presentation
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FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY

FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY

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FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY

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  1. FOOD SAFETY IN THE COFFEE INDUSTRY 1st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON FOOD SAFETY 22nd NOVEMBER 2002 RENAISSANCE JAMAICA GRANDE OCHO RIOS Presented by: Timon Waugh Research& Environmental Department Coffee Industry Board Email: twaugh@ciboj.org

  2. Presentation Summary • Overview of coffee and safety concerns • Broad look at the emerging threat of mycotoxins to food safety • Local coffee industry response to mycotoxin in coffee

  3. The Coffee Industry • After oil, coffee is the most widely traded commodity in the world • Provides employment for some 20 million persons worldwide • Most widely consumed beverage • Grown in the tropics

  4. Jamaica’s Coffee Industry • Coffee is the second most important agricultural product • Generates earnings of over US $30 M from export • Employs over 50,000 person directly with over 250, 000 dependents • Best coffee in the world

  5. Coffee plant

  6. Coffee berries

  7. Coffee beans

  8. Areas of Concern • Chemical residues (pesticides) • Proper processing • Storage conditions • Contamination

  9. Chemical Residues • Proper use & handling • Time between application and reaping • Residue analysis

  10. Processing • All processors are licensed by Coffee Industry Board • Annual inspection of works • Powers to revoke license

  11. Storage • Coffee absorbs anything in its surroundings – must be stored away from chemicals, spices etc. • Store in sealed containers • Low humidity • Low temperature

  12. Care in Brewing Coffee • Clean equipment with a brush and hot water immediately after use • No detergents or chemicals should be used for cleaning • Do not reheat coffee after brewing . If it becomes cold it should be dumped

  13. MYCOTOXINS - Their Impact on Food Safety with Focus on Coffee

  14. What are Mycotoxins ? Mycotoxins are metabolic products of moulds/fungi that infest a wide range of agricultural commodities, processed food and animal feed.

  15. Major Mycotoxin-Producing Moulds • Aspergillus • Fusarium • Penicillium

  16. Mycotoxins of Major Interest • Aflatoxins – most well known • Ochratoxin • Fumonisin • Zearlenone • Patulin

  17. Food & Commodities Commonly Affected • Corn & corn products • Oats • Barley • Wheat • Peanuts

  18. Food & Commodities Commonly Affected • Cereals • Coffee • Dried vine fruits • Wine and beer • Processed pork and fish

  19. Mould Infested Corn

  20. Other Affected Animal Products • Kidney • Liver • Blood • Human blood samples

  21. Where Are Mycotoxins Found • Tropical regions • Temperate regions

  22. Health Problems Caused by Mycotoxins • Cancers –(in many different areas of the body) • Kidney Disorder • Liver Damage • Reproduction Disorder • Respiratory Disorder • Birth Abnormalities • Heart Disease

  23. Growth Suppression in turkey poult (right)

  24. Livers from guinea pigs given increasing doses of aflatoxin

  25. Enlarged uterus in mouse (left) injected with zearalenone

  26. Tumor development in liver of trout due to mycotoxin in diet Control

  27. Regulations Governing Mycotoxins • Monitoring testing at port of entry • Many countries have legislated maximum allowable limits • Allowable limits vary from country to country and is mycotoxin specific.

  28. Some Examples of Limits for OTA in Coffee • Italy 4 ppb • Spain 4 ppb • Finland 5 ppb • Germany 3 ppb 4 ppb is equivalent to a small teaspoon of OTA spread uniformly over 1000 tonnes of coffee

  29. Epidemics Caused by Mycotoxins • Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria) • Cancers of the kidney • 12% of population affected • 100 % fatality over 2-10 yrs. after diagnosis • Alimentary Toxic Aleukia ( Russia, WWII) • Ergotism (Middle Ages)

  30. What Makes Mycotoxins in Coffee of Concern • OTA is carcinogenic • Contaminated coffee can contribute from 2.5%-25% of tolerable daily OTA intake from food & beverage (3-4 cups or 25g/day) • The coffee industry (internationally) is instituting limits & testing • Cut off level for OTA in coffee is 2-4 ppb

  31. Research Findings • OTA has a half –life of 20-50 days in human blood • OTA is not destroyed by the roasting and brewing process • Coffee can contribute up to 25 % of OTA intake

  32. Our Response • Keep informed on development • Set up testing facility • Conduct survey of OTA in local coffee • Monitor all coffee being marketed • Identify Critical Control Points (CCP)

  33. Findings of Local Industry • Levels of OTA encountered in Jamaican coffee 1- 5.2 ppb • Most of the local coffee tested have levels well below the 4 ppb limit

  34. SUMMARY • Mycotoxins are an emerging threat to food safety • There is great need for further research to illustrate the health risks caused by mycotoxins • Major health risks are cancers and damage to the kidney, liver,reproductive system, immune system, respiratory tract • Jamaican coffee have levels below the maximum allowable limit

  35. SUMMARY • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) & Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) must be encouraged • Identify Critical Control Points (CCP) in all food operations • Institute testing • Foster awareness in general public