Sanitation in the Food Industry Inspection Standards for the Food Industry
History of Food Laws • 1784 – Massachusetts enacted the first general food law in the US. • 1850 – California passed a Pure Food and Drink Law. • 1883 – Dr. Harvey Wiley became chief chemist of the Bureau of Chemistry, USDA, and assigned staff to problems of food adulteration.
1906 – President Theodore Roosevelt passed the original Pure Food and Drug Act. • 1906 – discoveries of unsanitary conditions in meat packing plants stimulated the passing of the Meat Inspection Act. • 1913 – an amendment to the Meat Inspection Act was enacted requiring quantity information to appear on food packages.
1927 – FDA (Food and Drug Administration) was established by the Federal government. • 1938 – Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act was passed, completely revising the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act. • 1943 – Supreme Court rules that corporate officials as well as the corporation itself are subject to prosecution for violations of Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.
1954 – The Pesticide Amendment was enacted, setting safe limits for pesticide residues on raw ag products. • 1958 – Food Additives Amendment was enacted prohibiting use of new food additives until established as safe by the FDA. • 1960 – Color Additives Amendment allowed the FDA to establish regulations for the safe use of coloring in foods. • 1966 – Fair Packaging and Labeling Act passed.
1969 – FDA began a self-certification program now called the “Cooperative Quality Assurance Program.” • 1973 – FDA published regulations on nutrition labeling of food products, also completed standards of quality for certain foods by setting microbiological limits as part of the standards. • 1980 – Department of Health, Education and Welfare became the Department of Health and Human Services.
Food Regulatory Agencies • Regulation of the food industry involves inspection from several of the following agencies: • FDA (Food and Drug Administration) • EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) • State/Local Health Agencies • Department of Defense • USDA (United States Department of Ag) • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Act)
The Food and Drug Administration(FDA) • Manages the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act, the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP), and the Defect Action Levels. • The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act – regulates the adulteration of foods and unsanitary conditions in processing plants. This act also fives FDA inspectors authority to enter and inspect any food establishment where food is processed, packaged, or held for shipment.
FDA (cont.) • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) deals with sanitation in manufacturing, processing, packing, and holding food. It establishes basic rules for food establishment sanitation. It requires minimum demands on sanitary facilities for water, plumbing design, sewage disposal, toilet facilities, hand-washing facilities and supplies, and solid waste disposal.
FDA (cont.) • Defect Action Levels – deal with rodent droppings and insect parts in specific raw materials. Some foods, even when produced under GMP’s, contain nonhazardous natural or unavoidable defects at lower levels. The FDA establishes maximum levels for these defects in foods.
Environmental Protection Agency(EPA) • Involves environmental regulations affecting food sanitation. • The Federal Water Pollution Control Act – requires the obtaining of permit which establishes specific limitations on the discharge of pollutants into “navigable waters.” • The Clean Air Act reduces air pollution by setting pollution standards.
EPA (cont.) • The FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) covers the use of insecticides, rodenticides, and sanitizing solutions used by everyone, not merely food processors.
US Department of Agriculture(USDA) • USDA laws apply to food processors offering products containing meat, poultry, and eggs. • Inspectors have authority over processing plants.
The Department of Defense • Sets standards for those food processors who produce products for military installations including commissaries. • Processors get inspected by The Department of Defense every six months. • Military standards are very similar to GMP’s but include certain specifics.
State/Local Governments • Usually have specific laws regarding food processing, storage, and sale. • These laws go hand and hand with the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the GMP’s.
Occupational Safety and Health Act(OSHA) • Provides a safe environment for the employee. • Inspectors have the freedom to enter the establishment anytime during business hours to evaluate the safety standards of the plant.
Inspection Standards Assignment • Research one of the food regulatory agencies on the internet. • Write a one page paper over the information you have found. • Explain the history of the agency, its purpose, and give examples of it influence in the food industry. • Websites should be included.