Universal Screening for Behavior. Jessica Swain- Bradway , IL PBIS Network With contributions from : Jennifer Rose, Illinois PBIS Network Lynn Owens, Schaumburg CCSD 54. Agenda. Wha t is Universal Screening?
Universal Screening for Behavior Jessica Swain-Bradway, IL PBIS Network With contributions from : Jennifer Rose, Illinois PBIS Network Lynn Owens, Schaumburg CCSD 54
Agenda • What is Universal Screening? • Rationale for identifying children through universal screening for behavior • Readiness checklist • Illinois PBIS Network screening model • A review of several screeners • Exemplar discussion
Objectives • Briefly define Universal Screening to a co-worker • Be able to explain the rationale for including universal screening in your multi-tiered behavioral initiative: • Benefits • Concerns • Briefly describe a district example including outcomes • Identify a resource for more information on universal screening
Universal Screening Defined • “Universal screening is the systematic assessment of allchildren within a given class, grade, school building, or school district, on academic and/or social-emotional indicators that the school personnel and community have agreed are important.” • Source: Ikeda, Neessen, & Witt, 2009
Purpose of Universal Screening for Behavior • Integral to the Response to Intervention (RtI) model • Set the stage for prevention • Emphasis on prevention versus intervention • Use an evidence-based instrument to identify: • Risk factors for emotional/behavioral difficulties • Social-emotional strengths and needs
Where are we? 2014! • We assert that MTSS is preventative • A model of “reaction”: • Kids have problems, we react. • This is SLOW. • This means= kids fail / have problems / hate school / disengage parents / teachers are stressed / etc. • The louder the problem, the more quickly we react. • The ISSUE: all problems aren’t “loud”, if we can “hear” it, it is already gaining momentum!
Rationale: Prevalence Rates • How prevalent are emotional disorders among school-age children and youth?
Rationale: Student Benefits • A ‘window of opportunity’ ranging between 2-4 years when prevention is critical (Costello, et al, 1996) • U.S. Department of Education: “…compelling research sponsored by OSEP on emotional and behavioral difficulties indicating that children at risk for these difficulties could also be identified through universal screening and more significant disabilities prevented through classroom-based approaches involving positive discipline and classroom management.”
Rationale: Student Benefits • Universal screening for behavior is more effective than reliance on office discipline referrals (ODRs) for identifying students with risk factors for internalizing (e.g., depression, overly shy, withdrawn, anxiety) behaviors • ODRs are typically measures of non-compliant, acting-out behaviors • Teachers tend to under-refer internalizers • Sources: Walker, Cheney, Stage, & Blum, 2005; Walker et al., 2010
Rationale: Student Benefits • Flexibility of the brain: • Use positive learning experiences to: • Reshape neurological pathways • Build positive, adaptive behaviors (versus maladaptive) (Weinberger, et al., 2005) The sooner we see behaviors predictive of increased risk, the sooner we can prevent problem behaviors.
“Untreated emotional problems have the potential to create barriersto learning that interfere with the mission of schools to educate all children.” (Adelman & Taylor, 2002) Youth who are the victims of bullying and who lack adequate peer supports are vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders(Deater-Deckard, 2001; Hawker & Boulton, 2000) “Depressive disorders are consistently the most prevalent disorders among adolescent suicide victims (Gould, Greenberg, Velting, & Shaffer, 2003) . “Without early intervention, children who routinely engage in aggressive, coercive actions, are likely to develop more serious anti-social patterns of behaviors that are resistant to intervention.” (Walker, Ramsey, & Gresham, 2004) Rationale: Risks of Delaying ID The longer children go without intervention, the more negative their behaviors can be for themselves and others.
Process Time • What are the risks of delaying identification and intervention? • What are the benefits to speeding up identification and intervention?
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support Tier 1/Universal School-Wide Assessment School-Wide Prevention Systems We want to identify BEFORE big issues interfere with school: Externalizers, Internalizers ODRs, Attendance, Tardies, Grades, DIBELS, etc. Tier 2/Secondary Tier 3/ Tertiary Check-in Check-out (CICO) Intervention Assessment Social/Academic Instructional Groups (SAIG) Daily Progress Report (DPR)(Behavior and Academic Goals) Individualized Check-in Check-out (CICO), Groups, & Mentoring Competing Behavior Pathway, Functional Assessment Interview, Scatter Plots, etc. Brief Functional Behavior Assessment/ Behavior Intervention Plan (FBA/BIP) Complex or Multiple-domain FBA/BIP SIMEO Tools: HSC-T, SD-T, EI-T Wraparound/RENEW Illinois PBIS Network, Revised April 2012 Adapted from T. Scott, 2004
Examples of Externalizing Behaviors: Physical aggression Verbal aggression (Arguing, threats, name calling, etc.) Being out of seat Not complying with teacher instructions or directives Source: Walker and Severson, 1992
Examples of Internalizing Behaviors: Withdrawn: Not talking with other children Has very few, or no friends Extreme shyness Timid and/or unassertive Avoiding or withdrawing from social situations Not standing up for one’s self Source: Walker and Severson, 1992
Illinois Universal Screening Model Gate 1 Teachers Rank Order then Select Top 3 Students on Each Dimension (Externalizing & Internalizing) Pass Gate 1 Teachers Rate Top 3 Students in Each Dimension (Externalizing & Internalizing) using either SSBD, BASC-2/BESS, or other evidence-based instrument Gate 2 Tier 2 Intervention. Pass Gate 2 (Multiple Gating Procedure Adapted from Walker & Severson, 1992)
Illinois Universal Screening Model • ‘Multi-gate’ process for implementing universal screening for behavior • Efficient: • Takes approximately one hour, maximum, per classroom to complete process • Less expensive and more timely than special education referral process • Fair: • All students receive consideration for additional supports (gate one) • Reduces bias by using evidence-based instrument containing consistent, criteria to identify students (gate two)
Illinois Universal Screening Model • Other relevant student information for students being screened: • Student IDs • Birthdate • Race/ethnicity • Special education/Section 504 status • Grade level
Illinois Universal Screening Model • Parents of nominated students, who meet the screening criteria, are contacted in writing to request permission for their child’s participation in a simple, secondary intervention (e.g., check-in/check-out) • Coordinator inform teachers of students who are participating in interventions • Teachers receive progress monitoring data
Illinois Universal Screening Model: Outcomes • Key outcomes from four years of implementation in Illinois schools: • On average within PBIS schools less than 10% of students, enrolled in grades screened, met criteria for needing additional supports • Over time, fewerstudents were identified via universal screening process *Enrollment based on ISBE 2010 Fall Housing Report for grades screened
Universal Screening Resources: • Illinois PBIS Network: • Search for “Universal Screening” • http://www.pbisillinois.org/trainings/universalscreening/presentations • Florida PBIS: http://flpbs.fmhi.usf.edu/ • National PBIS Technical Assistance Center: www.PBIS.org • RTI Action Network: • http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/research/universal-screening-within-a-rti-model
Universal screening readiness • Build a foundation • Secure district and building-level administrative support for universal screening • Establish universal screening committee consisting of district and building-level administrators, student support personnel, teachers, family and community representatives and assign roles • Clarify goals • Identify purpose of universal screening (e.g., mental health, social skills assessment) • Determine desired outcomes
Universal screening readiness • Identify resources and logistics • Identify resources for supporting students identified via screening (in-school and community-based) • Create a timeline for executing screening process including frequency of screening (e.g., once, or multiple times per year?) • Develop budget for materials, staff, etc. • Create administration materials (e.g., power point to share process with staff, parents and community members, consent forms, teacher checklists) • Schedule dates for screening(s) and meetings to share school-wide results
Universal screening readiness • Create a quick and easy for teachers, AND, • Select an evidence-based screening instrument for advanced screening (gate 2) • Use TheStandards for Educational and Psychological Testing, or resources from other professional organization resources (e.g., National Association for School Psychologists; NASP), as guidelines for selecting an appropriate screener
Universal screening readiness • Data • Develop data collection and progress monitoring system • Determine systematic process for using results to inform interventions • Plan for sharing screening and progress monitoring results with staff and families
Illinois Example: Universal Screening at theElementary and Jr. High Created by: Lynn Owens, MSW, MEd Schaumburg CCSD 54 District External Coach
District 54 Demographics • 21 Elementary Buildings (K-6) • 5 Jr. High Buildings (7-8) • 1 Elementary & Jr. High Building (K-8) • District Enrollment: 14, 318 • Low Income: 18% • IEP: 11.3% • Bi-Lingual: 17.5% • Ethnicity: • White: 46.3% • African American: 6.5% • Hispanic: 22.5% • Asian: 20.0% • American Indian: 0.3% • Multi-Racial: 3.3%
District 54PBIS Implementation • 26 Elementary and Jr. High Buildings Implementing all 3 Tiers of PBIS • Cohort model: • Pull in cohorts of schools implementing / training • Tiers • Specific components (universal screening, restorative justice, for example)
Universal Screening:2010-13 • 2010-11 • 4 Buildings from Cohort 1 participated • 2 Elementary (Kindergarten-Sixth Grade) • 2 Jr. High (Seventh-Eighth Grade) • 2011-12 • 8 Buildings from Cohort 1 and 2 participated • 4 Elementary (Kindergarten-Sixth Grade) • 4 Jr. High (Seventh-Eighth Grade) • 2012-13 • 16 Buildings from Cohort 1-4 participated • 11 Elementary • 5 Jr. High Buildings
Preparing for Screening: Year 1-Pilot • Screening Window: October – November 2010 • District Admin and External Coach Responsibilities (Sept-Oct) • External Coaches attended Universal Screening Facilitator training by Jen Rose, IL PBIS Network • Tier 2 Coaches identified as Screening Facilitators • Presented Universal Screening to Superintendent, Board Cabinet, District Leadership Team, and Building Administrators • Developed Parent Information/Consent Letter • Prepared protocols for Facilitators • Identify and Train Screening Facilitators (Oct) • Cohort 1 buildings for Pilot • Implementing PBIS at least 2 years • CICO implemented with fidelity for 1 full year • Elementary Facilitator Training: • Time Lines for the year • SSBD Facilitator Training • Jr. High Facilitator Training: • Time Lines for the year • BASC-2/BESS Facilitator Training
Preparing for Screening Year 1-Pilot (con’t) • Facilitator Responsibilities (Oct-December) • Review and follow timeline • Facilitator timeline • Teacher timeline • CICO was up and running since mid-September • Increase in students participating as result of screener • Changes to support internalizing students identified via screener • CICO Parent letter • Scheduled screening dates with administrator • 20-30 min. overview • 1.5 hr. administration • Wednesday Staff Development (Elementary & Jr. High) • Grade Level Meeting (Jr. High) • Presented screening overview and administration with External Coach • 1 building presented without External Coach • Prepared screening protocols for scoring • SSBD: Facilitators scored using excel spread sheet • BASC-2: IL PBIS personnel scored • Reviewed results with administrator and staff
Screening: Year 2 • Screening Window: October – November 2011 • District Admin and External Coach Responsibilities (Aug-Sept) • Notified Tier 2 Coaches about Screening Facilitator training • Provided Facilitator training with IL PBIS Network • Building Administrators informed of screening window • Modified Parent Information/Consent Letter • Informed consent • Screener part of support students receive at Tier 2 • Identify and Train Screening Facilitators (Sept) • Cohort 1 and 2 buildings conduct screening • Implementing PBIS at least 2 years • CICO implemented with fidelity for 1 full year • Elementary Facilitator Training: • Time Lines • SSBD Facilitator Training • Jr. High Facilitator Training: • Time Lines • BASC-2/BESS Facilitator Training
Screening: Year 2 (con’t) • Facilitator Responsibilities (Sept-December) • Review and follow timeline • Facilitator and Teacher timeline • “Jump-start” Time Line • CICO up and running since mid-September • Increase in students participating as result of screener • Changes to support internalizing students identified via screener • CICO Parent letter • DPR cards • Scheduled screening dates with administrator • 20-30 min. overview • 1-1.5 hr. administration • Presented overview and screening administration with External Coach to staff • 5 buildings presented without assistance from External Coach • Prepared screening protocols for use for staff and scoring • SSBD: Facilitators copied/labeled protocols and scored on-site • BASC-2: Facilitators labeled protocols and PBIS scored off-site • Reviewed results with administrator and staff
Universal Screening: Parent Letter October 2011 Dear Parent/Guardian, As you know, ___________ school has been implementing Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports (PBIS) which is a proactive approach to establishing the behavioral supports and social culture needed for all students in a school to achieve social, emotional, and academic success. Our school was selected to be a replication site by the Illinois PBIS organization, which provides us with training and support as we work to continually improve ways to support our children and families. As part of being a replication site this year, we will be utilizing an assessment tool for teachers that will help identify students who may be having minor challenges in school, such as following rules and expectations, or making friends. Our goal in using this teacher assessment tool is to identify which children may need some assistance before minor challenges become big problems. Over the next few weeks, your child’s classroom teacher will review the class roster and identify students who currently may be having problems or difficulties in school. We will contact the parents of children who have been selected by their classroom teacher to participate in a simple intervention focused on supporting the child in a proactive and positive manner. Please feel free to contact me at ________ if you have any questions. Sincerely, Principal
Universal ScreeningElementary Facilitator “JumpStart” List Universal Screener To Do Checklist (ELEMENTARY) Schedule Date with Administrator, External Coach, & PBIS TAC __Staff Overview (following coordinator meeting with External Coach & PBIS TAC- 20 to 30 min during STAFF DEVELOPMENT __Screening Administration (Schedule no sooner than 2 weeks after Overview- 1 to 1.5 hours during STAFF DEVELOPMENT __Review and Mail Parent Letter (at least 2 weeks prior to screening date) Prep for Overview ___Copy Teacher timeline to be given at/during overview (1 per teacher) ___Reserve meeting place with projector to view power point ___Review power point Prep for Screening Administration ___Reserve meeting place with projector and place for teachers to complete protocol ___Find place to keep protocols locked-up until input into excel spread sheet (keep protocols locked up until end of school year then shred) ___Extra Pens or Pencils (just in-case some teachers forget) ___Prep protocols (Identifying information Label is attached to white copy to be sent by External Coach week of October 11) __Copy 3 of each per teacher(Green for Internalizers andBlue forExternalizers). ___Review power point **CONTACT EXTERNAL COACH WITH ANY QUESTIONS! EXTERNAL COACH AND/OR PBIS TAC NEED TO BE PRESENT DURING ADMINISTRATION!!***
Elementary: Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD) • Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker and Severson, 1992) • Used in Elementary Schools (Grades 1-6) • Universal screening (similar to annual vision/hearing screenings) • Identifies behaviors that may impede academic and social functioning • Cost Effective • Used in multiple grades and buildings • Copying and labeling protocols on-site • Score protocols on-site • Scored using excel spreadsheet • No special skills required • Student information remains locked in building • Students receive support with-in 2 weeks of administration
SSBD: Background Information • The SSBD is NOT recommended as a diagnostic tool for eligibility for special education services • The SSBD screening WILL NOT replace the current procedures for special education evaluation or any other identification for support process IL-PBIS Network, Sept 2010